Amina Inloes

Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the Islamic College in London and also the Managing Editor of the Journal of Shi'a Islamic Studies.

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 1 month ago

There are some hadith along those lines. It has been suggested that these are forged hadith. In some cases, when the ayah is presented differently, with insertions, it has been suggested that this may have been an explanation or gloss by the speaker which was later misunderstood as a quotation of the entire ayah.

It is true that there are a few hadith along these lines both in Sunni and Shi'i texts.

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 2 months ago

It is generally held that "We" in the Qur'an is the "royal we", to express Allah's grandeur and status, similar to how kings refer to themselves as "We" rather than "I" in proclamations.

"We" is usually used in the Qur'an in verses which emphasise Allah's rule and command whereas "I" is used in verses which express Allah's nearness or care, and a direct relationship - for instance, "call upon me and I shall respond to you". 

Sometimes "We" seems to shift to "I", or vice versa, for rhetorical effect. (That is, to make the power of the language stronger.) 

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 2 months ago

The Qur'an and hadith (both Sunni and Shi'i) give the sense that the jinn exist in the same world as us. The Qur'an and hadith describe occasional interactions between humans and jinn on a physical level - for instance, seeing a jinn manifest as an animal (as in the story of the jinn who came to see Imam Ali in the Mosque of Kufa) or hearing their voices audibly. Another example would be the jinn working for the prophet Sulayman (A).

However, apart from those occasional interactions, usually jinn keep to themselves and human beings do not see them.

However, some mystics have held that there is a sort of veil between the human world and the jinn world, which you could call the barzakh. That is, humans and jinn subsist in the same realm, but in something akin to parallel dimensions. I am not aware of any basis for this in Qur'an and hadith, but it could be true. 

So do jinn live in the barzakh? To me, the best view is "maybe" and "it depends on what you call the barzakh". If one takes "barzakh" to mean something akin to "mundus imaginalis" - that is, the imaginal realm which humans access through dreams, visions, or imagination, it might be correct to say that jinn live in barzakh. After all, people usually encounter jinn in dreams or the inner realm (for instance, Shaytan whispering to the heart), rather than in physical life. This is similar to how people are more likely to have a dream or vision of a deceased person, such as Imam Husayn (A), rather than physically seeing them walking down the street.

If one takes barzakh to mean specifically the place where human spirits go after death but before the Resurrection... while this meaning of "barzakh" may have some relationship to the above, I am not aware of any texts which specifically say that deceased human spirits live in the same place as living/deceased jinn, although I don't think we have any texts that rule out any sort of interaction ever between living/deceased jinn and deceased humans.

In any case, it seems as if the existence of the human being after death is more similar to the jinn, because the human being in the barzakh is less encumbered by the physical body and able to move around more.

In fact, I don't think we have any texts that say what happens to jinn after they die but before the Resurrection - for instance, do they go to their own barzakh? - however, the Qur'an says that, after Resurrection and Judgment, the jinn who go to Hell and the humans who go to Hell are all mixed together in the same Hell. It does not specify whether the jinn who go to Heaven and the humans who go to Heaven go to the same Heaven.

Anyway, it can be quite difficult to make concrete statements about spiritual cosmology, metaphysical realities, or other things which are not tangible. Even if someone says something, it is really quite difficult to prove whether it is true or false, except in the case of Qur'an and accurate hadith, which we accept on the basis of them being divinely inspired or approved.

So, this, in short, is my understanding of what the Qur'an and hadith say, and also what some mystically inclined thinkers have said. God knows best!

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 2 months ago

I am sorry to hear about your challenge. If both of you are dedicated to the marriage, inshallah you will find a way to make it work and maybe you will both eventually find greater ease through working together to build your life financially and otherwise. 

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 2 months ago

Being sayed or non-sayed is wholly irrelevant here.

The criteria for marriage, from a shari'ah perspective, is that he is a Muslim, and the baseline criteria for being a Muslim is professing the shahadatayn (belief in Allah and the Prophet Muhammad).  

If he is deeply committed to his spiritual leader, it may be good to make sure you are comfortable with the spiritual leader's ideas, since, in my experience, when there is a conflict between a spiritual leader and a spouse, the spiritual leader usually wins. 

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 2 months ago

Inshallah, although it is possible that your hopes and dreams might change there, since much of what we hope for in the material world relates to our physical circumstances, physical bodies, social circumstances, and so forth. You may also discover that there are new things that you would like to live that you would not have dreamt of here!

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 2 months ago

'Allamah Tabataba'i mentions the view in this link. It is not the dominant view of Shi'i scholars today, but I think it makes sense.

https://www.al-islam.org/shining-sun-memory-allamah-tabatabai-sayyid-muh...

God knows best

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 2 months ago

There is some discussion of this topic here: https://www.al-islam.org/ask/is-it-the-case-that-only-men-are-allowed-to...

The main reason why it is unlikely that a woman will become a marja' today is not theoretical, since there may be many approaches to Islamic law, but rather is practical. That is, there are social forces that would push a woman off of the path of becoming a marja', and women do not have the same networking, educational, or social  support that men have and which people need to succeed in any field. (Although some Iranian women become mujtahids and there are structures in place in Iran to facilitate that, less so in other countries although it occurs in other countries also.) Furthermore, women who are religiously conservative are generally encouraged to avoid positions of public leadership or to avoid being publicly visible.

Maybe in the future it will be different.

However, it is worth considering that there are many forms of religious and spiritual leadership. While we focus mostly on the role of the marja' as the chief jurist, or chief legal expert, people require guidance and leadership in many areas of life, including family matters, spiritual guidance, ethics, politics, charitable work, and so forth. Some marja's do offer guidance in these areas also but not all do, as it is not possible for one person to specialize in every single thing or to do every single thing at one time. Furthermore, even within the Islamic sciences, there are other areas of expertise that are also important such as tafsir. So it is also valuable to become a leader or expert in other areas of religion, not only jurisprudence/law.

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 2 months ago

I am not aware of any specific du'a in the transmitted Sunni or Shi'i sources for this, but I guess you could just do a regular du'a and ask Allah to increase your height. God knows best.

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 2 months ago

This is a thoughtful question that shows reflection on the historical account.

Insofar as there is no answer mentioned in history books, it is not possible to give an answer. 

If I were to guess, perhaps it would have aroused too much suspicion to bring water, or perhaps it was an emotional and sudden moment and he was not thinking about things, or perhaps some other reason.

Ayatollah Motahhari was of the view that it is not correct that they were without water for 3 days and nights. See https://www.al-islam.org/al-tawhid/vol13-no3/ashura-misrepresentations-d...

I don't think there is historical evidence that they were without food, however, the lack of water is much more dire.

God knows best!

 

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 2 months ago

Answers should be given with certain knowledge, and no one here (as far as I know!) has certain knowledge about everything that is happening outside of our experience or eyes. 

Also, no one can give certain knowledge about the long-term effects of a new substance or medication, even if there is no ill intent, until time passes and we come to understand the complexity of effects. Certainly there are many substances that were originally thought to be safe and now we know they are dangerous. 

So, basically, no one here can give a full answer to "is it safe". 

However, if you are unsure about whether or not you should receive a vaccine, I suggest (a) talking to researchers or health professionals about it, (b) considering your situation and people around you (for instance, are you in a high-risk profession or are people in your household particularly vulnerable) and making the best decision, and (c) if that does not work, do istikahra. 

 

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 3 months ago

The goal of istikhara, as presented in hadith, is to seek divine wisdom for what path we should take. So, from that angle, the goal of istikhara is not to see how someone's character will be in a marriage.

However, some scholars who have a lot of experience performing istikharas might sometimes be able to offer some insights on the matter, especially if it is glaringly apparent.