Amina Inloes

Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the Islamic College in London and also the Managing Editor of the Journal of Shi'a Islamic Studies.

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 2 weeks ago

I can't quite figure out the Arabic text of these quotations in English, in order to discuss them, so it would be helpful if you could write the exact texts in Arabic, or give a reference.

The closest narrations that come to mind are:
* It is narrated that the best form of ibadah is love for the Ahl al-Bayt (A). 
* There is a narration in the Sunni books that a man who is bodily injured by someone (such as in a fight) and forgives that has offered a form of charity to the person who injured him. 

Anyway, there are a lot of hadith attributed to the Prophet (S) saying "the best form of worship is..." and "the best form of charity is...", and sometimes different things are mentioned.

From this, one gets the sense that the intent behind the text is often to say that "this is a good thing to do" and encourage people to do it, not that there is a hierarchy of different types of charity or worship, and only one of them is at the top.

(Except in a case where the text is very clear that this is the absolute best thing to do and specifies that it really is meant to be better than anything else.) 

Of course, there are many hadith encouraging charity (whether it be material assistance, or other forms of generosity such as kindness or assistance), forgiveness, and love (apart from love towards the vicious or enemies of God). 

(Note that someone else may recognize what texts are being discussed here and have a better answer!)

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 2 weeks ago

Generally, this understanding is taken from what has been narrated about the revelation of a surah or ayat. 

However, sometimes there are contextual clues. For instance, if a verse discusses a historical event that happened after the hijrah, such as the Battle of Badr, it is understood that it was revealed in Medina.

Also, the style and content of Meccan verses are somewhat different from the style and content of Medinan verses. The Meccan verses tend to be shorter and focus more on the existence of God, the afterlife, and important ethical points, whereas the Medinan verses tend to be longer and also discuss matters such as legislation. This isn't an absolute rule but also lends some evidence.

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 2 weeks ago

Neither.

There is no solid historical evidence that she even existed, let alone when she might have died. 

There is no harm in commemorating the story about her as a customary matter or as something which may have occurred, or out of hope that there might be some blessings attached to it.

However if one is asking about bare facts and historical reliability, this is the answer. 
 

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 2 weeks ago

While this seems deeply unlikely, in any case, the Qur'an tells us that mankind and the earth - just like everything else - will eventually come to an end, and so therefore the phase of testing human beings will also sometime come to an end. 

However, by the reference in Qur'an 22:2 to pregnant women miscarrying and new mothers abandoning their infants upon the advent of the end of the world, one gets the sense that procreation will continue up until the end.

 

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 2 weeks ago

It is more respectful to the enormity of the Qiyama to avoid making jokes about it, the same for jokes about Allah.

However, out of His mercy, Allah has veiled certain things from us currently, including the severity of the hereafter, and the extent of His nature, so perhaps Allah would understand that these jokes are due to our ignorance in the material world, in the same way that children sometimes say silly things. 

Still, it is better to avoid it. 

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 3 weeks ago

Permissibility presupposes possibility, and it is generally not possible to force someone in their late teens or beyond to do something, except when they are physically in your presence.

Assuming your daughter has her own life outside the home (for instance, attending school or university, a job, socializing, or that sort of thing), it is unlikely that you could successfully force her to wear hijab; often, people of that age in that situation will simply wear hijab when going out the door and then take it off once they get to school, or wherever.

(An exception would be in a place where wearing hijab is the norm, and not wearing hijab outdoors would attract a lot of attention, in which case I would definitely consider it prudent to push a young woman to wear hijab, but I am assuming that this is not your situation.)

As you say, adults react poorly to compulsion, and will usually turn against anything they are forced to do. 

While this may or may not be relevant, it is worth keeping in mind that women sometimes change their hairstyles (or hijab-styles) as a reflection of other life changes - such a change in family status (a broken engagement, a parent's divorce/remarriage, etc), a change in their inner outlook and sense of who they are, or life challenges. So, sometimes, the hijab in and of itself is not really the main thing that is going on, even if it is the most visible one.

It might be worth interrogating why hijab is leading to a dislike of Islam itself. Are there women around who wear hijab who are behaving poorly? Are you living in a place where hijab is stigmatized? Does she just want to express herself more through her clothes or live a different kind of lifestyle? Is it just teenage rebellion? There are all sorts of scenarios, many of which have nothing to do with actual fiqh rulings about hijab.

In any case, discussing the underlying issues - which hijab is often symbolic of - and trying to come to some sort of agreement with her about her clothing might be more fruitful. 

 

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 1 month ago

Additionally, Qur'an 47:30 says that the hypocrites could be recognized by their tone of speech (either their tone of voice, or the tone of their choice of words).

It is related on the exegesis of this verse that the Companions Abu Sa'id al-Khudri and Jabir ibn 'Abdallah al-Ansari said: 'Their tone of speech meant that they hated 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, and thereby we knew who the hypocrites were in the time of Allah's Messenger.'

Of course, the verse does not specify dislike of Imam 'Ali, but Imam 'Ali was known to be the sort of person that only a hypocrite or nefarious person would dislike.

In any case, 'tone of speech' can also be take in general to refer to other signs of hypocrisy in what they said. 

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 1 month ago

Edit: There is a narration that says, "When a believer [in heaven] wants a child, Allah will created him or her without pregnancy or birth in whatever form [his parent] wishes, just as He created Adam." (al-Ihtijaj, 2/130, ascribed to a letter from Imam al-Mahdi (A))

I am not sure what else is mentioned on this subject in our sources (perhaps someone can add something.). 

However, possibly they will not want to have children there because often our desire to have children in this world is affected by hormones or society, or the desire to procreate is put into our hearts through divine mechanisms to carry out the plan of God for humanity.

God knows best!

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A general view is: It is allowed for a person living in a Muslim-majority society to emigrate to a non-Muslim society as long as it does not cause one to lose one's religion.

Beyond that, if a Muslim emigrates to the West, it is a personal decision whether or not they decide on focusing on building infrastructures in the West, or focus on going back to their country of origin. Not everyone has the same circumstances or the same role in life. Some people will work effectively in one country but not another. So it isn't the sort of thing one can say there is only one answer to. 

A more detailed view:

If someone has no choice and must emigrate for some reason, then obviously it is allowed; questions of permissibility are only for things that are by choice. Usually emigration is due to some need, such as for economic or political reasons, and not a straightforward choice.

The entire earth belongs to Allah. One of the ways that Allah directs us to one geographical location or another is through rizq - that is, making it difficult for us to live in one place and giving us employment or opportunities in another - and this is part of the divine plan.

Additionally, in reality, few (if any) Muslim-majority societies are currently embracing all the major values of Islam, such as social justice, absence of corruption, supporting the deprived, racial equality, and other things. We all know that in some Muslim-majority societies, there is also a problem with sectarian violence or sectarian restrictions.

Furthermore, in some Muslim-majority societies, Islamic practice has been restricted (such as limitations on or a bias against wearing the hijab).

So it may be overly simplistic to divide the world into "Muslim societies" and "non-Muslim societies".

However, one might surmise there are still some cultural factors in Muslim-majority societies that support a person's faith, or help in passing it on to children, such as being around mosques, seeing Islam as a normalized as part of daily life, less public alcohol consumption, and these  sorts of things. 

Anyway, yes, it seems like a good idea for Muslims to build permanent infrastructures in the West since many Muslims live in the West.

One can also note that Islam did not spread to today's "Muslim world" overnight. One major reason for the spread of Islam was the migration of individual Muslims to various places, and their their establishment of mosques and other institutions. So building Islamic institutions in the West is not something new or different, rather, it is just the same sort of thing that happened before. Sometimes there is a mental image that the Muslim-majority world was always that way, but that is obviously not the case on a historical level.

Note: There is an underlying assumption between this statement that all Muslims in the West come from, or have ancestry in, other countries. This assumption should be challenged. Not all Muslims in the West were born in other countries. Many Muslims in the West were born in the West and cannot easily return to the country of their ancestors, or they may be of mixed ancestry and not have a specific country to go do that is "theirs".

Also, not all Muslims in the West trace their ancestry to non-Western countries, so they do not have another country to go back to. (While some Western Muslims have attempted "hijra" to the Muslim-majority world, there are usually barriers along the lines of residency permits, work permits, being treated perpetually like an outsider, etc.)

I suspect that the migration of Muslims to the West is part of Allah's plan and perhaps Allah wishes to end the "clash of civilizations" between Islam and the West and create more interchange. Also, having a significant number of Muslims in the West has sparked some important discussions about Islam, Islamic law, inter-faith relations, and other matters due to the situation of Islam being in a new environment. This helps to have growth in Muslim thought rather than stagnation. So one can see there have been some benefits overall for the ummah to having a large number of Muslims, and Muslim institutions, in the West. 

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 1 month ago

My understanding of this is that it is with respect to spiritual matters, particularly the spiritual position of Ahl al-Bayt (A) in that if some people who did not have an understanding of this heard some people talking about it openly, they might react negatively due to ignorance.
 

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 1 month ago

Sorry to hear you are going through that challenge.

My suggestion is to look online for some support groups for other people who are in a similar situation and see if you find any benefit from the advice and experiences they share. 

With du'as!

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 2 months ago

It is allowed and he would probably be happy about the marriage, however, it is understandable if the family wishes to postpone it. Also, some cultures have viewpoints about these things (which are not specifically prescribed by Islamic law but could be taken into consideration although it is not required to adhere to cultural viewpoints).