Amina Inloes

Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the Islamic College in London and also the Managing Editor of the Journal of Shi'a Islamic Studies.

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 3 hours ago

No, although it could happen sometimes. But there are limitations.
 

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 4 hours ago

Short answer:

The things that are created in these two ayat are different. 41:10-11 refer to the creation of the earth (ard) and the things upon it, which is done in 4 days, whereas 41:12 refers to the creation of the seven heavens (samawat), which is done in 2 days. So altogether they add up to 6 days.

There are also other ways these ayat are understood, beyond a literal interpretation of "days".

Long answer:

"Day" is usually taken to refer to a time period in general, rather than a "day" in the sense of one rotation of the earth since our measurements of time rest on the physical world, and there was no such thing as an earth-day before the creation of the earth and sun. That said, a narration ascribed to Imam al-Baqir (A), in response to an enquiry about how a "day" could be meaningful before creation, says that time is also measured in an area of existence near Allah, and therefore is not only reliant on the physical world.

Some people maintain that the expression "two days" (or "two periods") refers to spiritual and physical aspects of creation, or that "days" refers to distinctly different stages of creation, rather than timespans.

Some people also understand "four days" with respect to the earth to refer to the four seasons, insofar as they are equal in length and relate to sustenance.

For instance, in Tafsir al-Qummi, "two days" is explained as "the beginning of Creation and its end", and "four days" is explained as "the four times when Allah brings out the world's means of sustenance... spring, summer, autumn, and winter."

If one is taking a numerical approach to "days", however, Qur'an 41:10-41:12 outline the creation of our world as follows:

41:10 - the earth (ard) in 2 days
41:11 - mountains, sustenance, and blessing in 4 days
41:12 - the heavens (samawat) in 2 days

Elsewhere, the Qur'an mentions that the world was created in 6 days.

From this, it can be understood that the 4 days in 41:11 include the 2 days mentioned in 41:10. That is, the earth and its features were, altogether, created in 4 days. Then, the heavens were created in 2 days. Altogether, these sum up as 6 days - or, rather, spans of time.

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 2 days ago

People say a lot of things: possibly, some of what they say is true, and some of what they say is untrue.

According to Qur'an and hadith, jinn and sihr can cause harm. However, many other things are also dangerous; for instance, animals are dangerous, and driving is dangerous. So it is good not to focus too much on being afraid of these things, since fear can be its own enemy.

Also, it is better not to cast too many aspersions on the other half of the thaqalayn, since most jinn are not going around trying to possess or harm people; in fact, it is related from Imam al-Baqir (A) that some of the jinn are better followers of the Imams than humans.

Some things that offer protection are reciting or listening to Qur'an, keeping ayat of the Qur'an or the names of Allah displayed on the wall, reciting du'as, praying salat regularly, avoiding certain types of sins or places where these sins are committed (such as sins involving violence, unhealthy sexuality, or drugs/alcohol), and living a healthy and balanced lifestyle. (A person who is living a healthy and balanced lifestyle is generally better able to cope with the challenges of life, whatever they are, although of course sometimes we do not have a choice about how we are living).

I am also favourable to the narration that says that keeping small animals wards off the harm of shayatin, although I understand that keeping domestic animals is a personal preference!

Also, if someone genuinely considers it a priority to keep jinn and sihr out of their life, it is good to avoid seeking out people or places associated with these things (for instance, do not take up paranormal investigation). This may not be relevant to you personally but may be relevant to others.

Allah protects.

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 2 days ago

Insofar as we do not physically have the Qur'anic manuscript compiled by Imam 'Ali, it is not possible to answer this question with the certainty that comes from seeing things with one's own eyes. Rather, it is necessary to rely on historical reports, and the validity of historical reports can be debated.

Anyway, one difference is that it is reported that Imam 'Ali added commentary and explanations to the codex that he compiled, including an explanation of when/why the ayat were revealed (asbab al-nuzul) and also a broader explanation of the ayat.

It is also reported that Imam 'Ali's manuscript was arranged chronologically, in order of the date of revelation, whereas the 'Uthmanic codex is not arranged chronologically.

In any case, we have been told by the Imams to use the codex that we have today as it is, so it is good to have faith that this is what we are meant to be using.

Allah knows best.

 

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 1 week ago

The historian Muhammad Jarir al-Tabari was Sunni. 

Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri: While Shi'ism originated early (a Shi'i being someone who supported the leadership of Imam 'Ali (A) and his descendants), it took some time for Sunnism as we know it today to develop. Al-Zuhri lived somewhat before that time. So it is not always wholly accurate to identify people in his time period as "Sunnis". This is not an issue with Tabari since Tabari lived later. 

In any case, Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri's work on hadith was the beginning of what became the tradition of major hadith collections in Sunnism, and led to the formative Sunni books of hadith. Furthermore, he was associated with the Umayyads. Therefore, he is a key figure in the development of Sunnism. 

 

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 4 weeks ago

The expression من ليس له شيخ شيخه الشيطان is not found in the extant hadith collections. It is attributed to some Sufis.

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 1 month ago

It is narrated that Asiya was one of Bani Isra'il. She believed in Allah and prayed secretly and hid her faith from the Pharaoh.

It is related that the Pharaoh killed the wife of the prophet Hizqil. The Pharaoh told her what had happened whereupon Asiya criticized him for what he did. Then the Pharaoh understood that she believed in Allah and had her killed.

Allah knows best.

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 1 month ago

"The sun runs to a resting place/stopping point/stopping time (mustaqirr) of its own. That is the decree of the Mighty, the Knowing." (36:38)

Clasically, the sun's "resting place" has been taken to mean: (a) the sun disappearing after sunset (just as a human being goes to their dwelling place at night before rising in the morning), (b) the final destiny of the sun on the Day of Judgment, or (c) the solstice, in a reference to the sun following its winter and summer orbits until the solstice.

Today, some Muslims interpret it as referring to (d) the astronomical end of the sun/the solar system.

Personally, I tend to see this as a poetic or celebratory expression of the natural world, than a statement intended to inform people of a scientific fact (even if the Qur'an is consistent with facts of reality).

In any case, options (a), (c), and (d) match scientific understanding (obviously, from the perspective of earth, the sun rises and sets).

Option (b) is outside the domain of science since it pertains to the end times and hereafter which no longer operate according to the natural laws presently.

(Some people seem to be of the view that it is unscientific to say that, from the perspective of an earth observer, the sun rises and sets. Perhaps people do not go out and watch sunrises as often as they used to; however, I would challenge them to explain why it is unscientific to discuss sunrise and sunset, when this has such a gigantic impact on things such as the weather and ecology, not to mention basics such as timekeeping. So it is scientifically fine to discuss the sun from the perspective of an earth observer, or from the perspective of right outside the solar system, or from an intergalactic perspective; they are all just viewpoints.)

As for "running", this matches the idea that the sun has a motion in the galaxy/universe and is not fixed in one spot, although it also matches the idea that the sun moves along the sky from the perspective of an earth-based observer. So either perspective is correct with respect to reality.

So the verse is open to several interpretations but they do not conflict with what is known about how the universe and natural world works. Probably the main point is to inspire reflection on the natural order.

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 1 month ago

The chain of narration is: حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو تَوْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا الْهَيْثَمُ، - يَعْنِي ابْنَ حُمَيْدٍ - عَنْ ثَوْرٍ، عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ مُوسَى، عَنْ طَاوُسٍ،

The first narrator, Tawus, is considered to be Tawus ibn Kaysan, who was born in 30 AH. Since the Prophet (S) passed away in 11 AH, obviously he did not see this directly and was reporting from someone else whose name is not mentioned.

So, from that angle, one could introduce a question mark into the narration.

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It means that people should not publicly claim to be in contact with Imam Mahdi (A) and use that as a grounds for their authority over people. It should also not be used as a justification for telling people what to do (for instance, telling people to change the shari'ah, or to give them money, or to follow a certain military leader, or to do anything else, because they say that this is what Imam Mahdi told them).

It is possible to meet Imam Mahdi (A) during the occultation and gain guidance or assistance, but this is a private matter, and it is between the individual and Allah whether or not that person truly met Imam Mahdi (A) or not.

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 1 month ago

It seems that when Allah created Adam, and gave him the human nature, Allah understood what Adam would do and that eventually Adam would come to this world, and that this was part of the plan of the creation of the human being, as well as something for us to learn from about our own nature.

Otherwise, if this process had not continued, and human beings were still living in the garden, we would not be dealing with the complexities of this world that enable it to fulfil its spiritual function for us - for instance, refining the soul, learning about things and their opposites (such as mercy and lack of mercy, knowledge and ignorance), developing the soul, testing the soul, and overall experiencing the world of matter and the material world. We would just be like children in the womb who are provided for and are secure but who are not growing beyond their confines.

Perhaps, one can also learn from this that our actions change us. Even if Adam's repentance was accepted, he was still a different person after what he did and therefore had a different life path.

Also, Allah says in the Qur'an that Allah loves those people who repent/turn back to Him (2:222). It is narrated that the Prophet (S) said: “Had you not committed sins and sought the forgiveness of Allah, He would have created others who commit sins and then seek His forgiveness so that He will forgive them. A believer commits sins frequently, but repents to Allah very frequently."

So it seems that the human being was created in such a manner that it is expected that we will need to continually turn back to Allah, even though of course we should not be making mistakes intentionally.

As for the overall purpose of life in this world, this of course is a question that people have debated since the beginning of time. From the Qur'an and hadith, one can understand that the purpose of being in this world includes cognizance and worship of Allah, learning about greater realities, growth, and testing the soul.

One can also consider that there is an overall purpose of existence of humanity in general, and each of us may also have our own individual purposes; for instance, I am sure that my purpose in life is not to become an Olympic runner (at least, I have not yet shown any talent in this area), but perhaps my personal purpose is something else.

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 1 month ago

Here are a couple responses that may be pertinent:

https://www.al-islam.org/ask/some-have-argued-that-mansur-al-hallajs-sta...