Amina Inloes

Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the Islamic College in London and also the Managing Editor of the Journal of Shi'a Islamic Studies.

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 3 weeks ago

Regarding whether he had a daughter named Fatima in Madina, there is some discussion here: https://www.al-islam.org/ask/what-information-is-available-on-the-life-o...

Historians do not agree on how many children Imam Husain had. However, this is a good summary of what various authors have said: https://en.wikishia.net/view/Imam_al-Husayn_b._%27Ali_(a)#Wives_and_Children

Hope that helps - history is a challenging subject!

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 4 weeks ago

Technically you are married (even if psychologically or socially you are single), so if you want to marry someone else, you should first get a divorce, and then observe iddah if necessary.

Istikhara is not appropriate for a thing which is inherently forbidden (and to marry someone else while you are married is forbidden).

This is why it is not a good idea to let a nikah without an actual marriage hang for a long time, whether it is as an engagement or after marriage. Of course it happens and I am not saying it is your fault personally, as usually it is the fault of society, but I am just saying it is not a healthy situation.

Anyway I hope you can resolve your marital situation soon (or, rather, dissolve it, if that is your intent).
 

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 4 weeks ago

There are a few reasons, including:

* Modesty (regarding explicit subjects, the Qur'an tends to be more modest and address men specifically as well as use euphemisms, even if both men and women are intended)
* Generality (zawj/azwaj can be understood in some cases to mean "spouses" in general and not specifically "wives" as it is often translated)
* In some cases, it is specifically addressing men and speaking about women (for instance, the verse about zihar when it talks about men divorcing their wives via zihar)

So it really depends on the verse. A good resource to look at for varying interpretations of verses is _The Study Quran_ edited by S. H. Nasr.

Hope that helps!

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 4 weeks ago

This question has been discussed to some degree here: https://www.al-islam.org/ask/topics/7744/questions-about-Houris

Anyway, it seems that this is said in the Qur'an as a form of encouragement (just as some things about Hell can be seen as a discouragement from doing certain things). Apparently this must have been or indeed must be encourgaging to men. As for why men are addressed and promised this instead of women, some might say it is out of modesty, although I might also suggest that perhaps men need a little more encouragement sometimes! :)

As for what virginity means in the Hereafter... that is more complicated question. One would assume that the physics of things is somewhat different there, and while there is a means for 2 beings to relate which is analagous to how 2 beings relate here, it is unlikely to involve all of the specific physiological details of earthly virginity.

There is also a certain logic behind saying that the huris are "not touched by jinn or men", since (a) it is generally held that jinn have their own Paradise and so they wouldn't be interacting with them anyway, and (b) there won't be people in Paradise until the judgment, so they wouldn't have had anyone to have a relationship with before. (c) Also since there are so many of them, perhaps they are all created as exact matches (soul-mates, if you will) to their human partners and not necessarily compatible with others.

As for women, seeing as it is said that we can more or less have whatever we want in Paradise, there is no reason what women should not have virgins, if that is what they would like.

That being said, I am sure you will agree that men are the cause of 90% of headaches for women in this world, so I would not be surprised if some women decide they would like some peace and quiet instead!

(With all apologies to our male colleagues who may completely disagree :) )

Anyway, Allah speaks to us according to our understanding in this world, when it comes to matters outside of this world, there is a certain amount of guesswork or theorizing when it comes to these questions. It is however an interesting question to ponder.

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 1 month ago

Yes.

Why would God punish or restrict a woman due to her paternal lineage to only allow her to marry a certain group of men, whereas other Muslim women are allowed to marry any Muslim man? 

However, I do think it's advisable to take sect into consideration when marrying, and to make sure that the husband and wife have compatible ideas about religion, especially if there is the possibility of children. However, this is general advice, not related to one's lineage.

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 1 month ago

It is not necessary to make a formal conversion. You can simply make an inner commitment to follow and respect Imam 'Ali and the other Imams, to implement the teachings of the Prophet (S) as transmitted from the family of the Prophet (S) (that is, Shi'i hadith), and to follow Shi'i religious law.

In practice, you will probably also want to find a Shi'i mosque or Shi'i gatherings to attend, if it is possible where you live. (It isn't a requirement, but most people like to spend time with people of the same faith orientation.)

There are a number of recommended practices in Shi'ism that are not required while, at the same time, are spiritually beneficial, such as reciting certain du'as on certain days, such as Du'a Kumayl on Thursday nights. One can find more information on these things on the websites www.duas.org. Attending gatherings for these can also be both spiritually and socially beneficial, although they are not considered necessary in the same way the salat is necessary.

In terms of deepening one's knowledge of the Shi'i tradition, there are a lot of good videos on YouTube and on sites such as ShiaTV.Net as well as sites from mosques (for instance, broadcasting Friday sermons), and also a lot of books available, including on al-islam.org.

[Note that I am putting these resources for information only, not implying that you do not have knowledge of these subjects already! However someone else might come across this response and find the links useful.]
Best wishes!

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 1 month ago

Teachers are highly respected in the Islamic tradition. 

The Qur'an does not talk about teachers too much, perhaps because part of the reform that Islam was bringing was an educational reform, and so, during the time of the Prophet (S), the society was transitioning to one with more focus on learning. However, one can see all the prophets discussed in the Qur'an as teachers.

Furthermore, the Prophet (S) emphasised teaching and learning, for instance, when he freed some literate prisoners of war, rather than requesting money in exchange for returning them, he requested that they teach others to read first. Islam has been referred to as 'the world's largest literacy program' and I think that is an apt description.

Additionally, there are many mentions in hadith of the importance of teaching, necessity and value of learning, and honour of the teacher, such as:
 
* It is narrated that the Prophet (S) said, ‘The best form of charity is for a man to gain knowledge and then teach it to his fellow brethren.'

* It is narrated that Imam Ali (A) said, ‘Everything decreases with giving away except knowledge.’

* It is narrated that Imam al-Baqir (A) said, ‘For the teacher of good, all the animals on the land and the fish in the sea seek forgiveness on his behalf, as do all creatures great and small in Allah’s earth and sky.’

* It is narrated that Imam al-Sadiq (A) said, 'Everything has a zakat, and the zakat of knowledge is to teach it to those who are worthy of it.’

If you have an interest in this subject, I would recommend the following book:

Desire of the Aspirant: On the Etiquette of the Teacher and the Student
by al-Shahid al-Thani [a classical Muslim scholar of the Shi'i persuasion]
translated by Alexander Khaleeli 

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answered 1 month ago

This is a question which can have many answers. In addition to the other answers given, you could:

* Be sure to pray all your salat. Regular salat makes a person mindful of God and makes a person embarrassed to do things that would displease God.
* Try to minimize exposure to things that would be ethically harmful to you (in-person, television, or social media). Go on an "information diet" - that is, be conscious of how what you are taking in is affecting you, and as much as possible choose the media that you feel makes you a better person.
* Try to spend some time regularly in the company of believers, as it strengthens and refreshes the soul.

 

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 1 month ago

It's up to you to decide whether you and this person share the same ethical values that would likely lead to a good marriage.

However... this may be a cause of "if you have to ask the question, you already know the answer." (That is, if it weren't a concern to you, you wouldn't ask; inside, you already know what you should do but may be second-guessing yourself.)

Anyway, here are some things you could consider:

  • Why prostitutes instead of a girlfriend? (Unless it he lives somewhere strict where he couldn't have a girlfriend, which is increasingly rare) I am not advocating having a girlfriend. (Please, no angry emails!) However, if someone has a girlfriend, they are at least demonstrating the emotional and personal maturity to invest in a relationship. Paying for company can be a way of avoiding the inconvenience of actually having a relationship. Is there any hint that this person might have difficulty with emotional commitment to a relationship?
  • How do you feel about the religious aspect of violating the command of Allah, and do you share the same religious values and worldview presently?
  • How do you feel about the objectification of women involved in paying for services?
  • Once a person has done something once, they may do it again. How would you feel if he continued this during your marriage?
  • If you are coming from a conservative or cautious religious background (for instance, no dating), it might not be a good match. Among other things, there may be resentment that he was indulging while you were trying your best to be chaste. Also, some women might feel insecure about the possibility of being compared to a professional sex worker.
  • Has he been tested for STD's?
  • And, how important this marriage is to you? Do you feel like this man is your soulmate and you will be losing out on a big opportunity in life if you pass up on this marriage? Or is it just that you're ready to get married and he happens to be around? 

(While some of the above is inherently critical, I do think it is good he is being honest about it rather than hiding things)

These are just some thoughts, but in the end it is your decision, I hope and pray that what happens is the best for both of you. 

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 1 month ago

In and of itself, there is nothing in Islam forbidding communication with any type of being (spirit, animal, human, tree, etc.). There is also nothing inherently forbidden about meditation or meditative practices.

However, some specific practices might be forbidden or at least deeply questionable, for instance, the use of psychoactive substances to induce these things.

Similarly, if someone does this for a wrong or haraam reason, this would also be forbidden.

The Quran does warn people about dependency or reliance on jinn, and that should be taken into consideration. People can be easily confused, deluded, or misled about these matters and there is also no guarantee that any spirit is going to say something which is truthful or beneficial. Sometimes people also get manipulated by things beyond themselves if they attempt to connect with them. So it is good to be careful and use good judgment. 

Note that some Muslims will take a more conservative approach to this question and say that it is forbidden based on reasons such as avoiding religious practices which are not prescribed by the Sunnah, etc. 

Also, attitudes among Muslims towards these things tend to vary, e.g. some Sufi groups tend to be more open to them. 

Anyway, people are called to all sorts of things in life. Some people are called to being artists, some to being athletes, some to what lies beyond. If you have a calling that is easily compatible with Islam, such as nursing, this is relatively straightforward. If you have a calling that is less easily compatible, such as being a ballet dancer, this is more difficult. In any case, part of being a dedicated Muslim who has a calling to something is deciding how to navigate and live one's calling in a way that is authentic to one's self and one's faith. 

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 1 month ago

In and of itself, it is not offensive - Muslims don't have a monopoly on head-covering. 

If someone is specifically wearing a style of head-covering that specifically seems to identify them as a Muslim:

* Clothing is a form of social signalling and identification. It is worth mentioning that, in general, the hijab comes with a package of values, beliefs, and social expectations (for instance, it is generally assumed that women who wear hijab pray regularly, are committed Muslims, behave in accordance with certain Islamic norms, do not date before marriage, etc), just as one might expect someone wearing a priest's collar to behave or not-behave in certain ways. So it is worth taking that into consideration. At the very least, someone might be surprised if they see a woman wearing a hijab buying bacon, for example.

* If someone is doing it to fetishize Islam and as a popularity stunt, it could be offensive and a form of cultural appropriation. For instance, if someone wears a a Muslim-style headscarf but posts sexually explicit photos, a bikini photo, a bar photo, etc. Some magazines and media outlets these days have caught on to the idea that "Muslim-ness" can be a great selling tool and some of the ways they use this to sell fashion is offensive, or, at least, against the spirit of hijab.

So, basically, if someone is choosing to wear a headscarf style that specifically makes them look like a Muslim, it would largely come down to intent and how they are presenting themselves and if they are doing it respectfully. 

Also note that people vary in their views of what they personally consider offensive or not. Some Muslim women might be very happy to see other women wearing the hijab and others might be taken aback. It's difficult to please all the people all the time! In my view, the most important thing is just to be authentic to yourself, whatever that might mean for you.

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Amina Inloes, Amina Inloes is originally from the US and has a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Exeter on Shi'a hadith. She is the program leader for the MA Islamic Studies program at the... Answer updated 1 month ago

https://muflihun.com/muslim/8/3422

Anyway it is just a single hadith whereas the Quran has been transmitted in a lot of ways, so it is probably just an erroneous hadith and doesn't pose a serious challenge to the authenticity of the Qur'an.

Besides, if someone was going to intentionally lose a part of the Qur'an, one would think it would be about a more controversial subject than how many times a baby should be suckled to be mahram. And it is unlikely that it would be lost accidentally.