A disaster is a serious disruption occurring over a relatively short period of time, affecting the functioning of a community or a society as it causes widespread human, material, economic or environmental loss which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
Yes, it is recommended to recite Azaan at home with loud voice. It removes harm and brings blessings and protection to the recitor and his famly members and all who live at that home.
as salam alaikum
storing food as precaution during disasters in itself is allowed and it could be also praiseworthy if the intention is to share it with others in times of hardship. However different situations call for different ways of dealing; for example it wouldn't be correct to store extra-food for ourselves while others cannot afford, or barely afford, basic necessities. In such case we should try to give priority to the needy, kids and elders in difficulty and offer our help to them if and when needed.
With prayers for your success.
This verse does inform the wrongdoers about the result of their bad deeds, but it does not suggest at all that all the natural disasters are results of human actions.
In some cases mentioned in Quran and authentic Hadeeths, natural disasters came on sinners who insisted on major sins, like people of Noah and people of Loot, but not all the natural disasters are same. Natural disasters can fall on Muslims and non Muslims, which means that it is not always a punishment. It is related to natural factors and reasons created by Allah (SWT) who created the Universe. Even those innocents who suffer from natural disasters will not be let with out appropriate compensation from Allah which is much greater that their loss. Those innocents who die from natural disasters will be granted much better and happier life.
The Mercy of Allah is greater than any suffering whatsoever.