Mecca, also spelled Makkah, is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m (909 ft) above sea level, and 340 kilometres (210 mi) south of Medina.
It is Not permissible at all. You must pray and fast according to the timing of the place where you live. Allah (SWT) ordered in Quran all Muslims to abide to the time of start of fasting which is Fajr, and end of fasting as the start of the night .(Sura 2, Verse 187).
Those who claim following different timings are deviating away from the clear orders of Quran and the authentic orders of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA).
Yes it is permissible to look at the Ka'bah during Qunoot because looking at the Ka'bah is a worship by itself. Nevertheless, it is always recommended during Qunoot of Prayers to look at your palms (inner side of your hands).
No one was forced to convert to Islam. Abu Sufyan and his son Mo'awiyah and Khalid ibn al-Waleed and others from Quraish saw the victory of Islam, and became sure that there will be no future but under the banner of Islam, they wanted to secure a political and social future for them, by declaring themselves as Muslims. The Prophet never punished them on their long history of fighting against Islam, but told them: Go away, you are been freed اذهبوا فأنتم الطلقاء.
The main reason is that it was not mandated by the Prophet; in fact, he prayed with his wife and daughter there.
Also, (a) because to do tawaf you have to go all the way around the Ka'bah, and that is difficult to do with segregation, similarly it might be challenging to arrange gender segregation for sa'i between Safa and Marwah, and (b) perhaps it could cause hardship for people travelling together.
While it is true that there are some people with sick minds who misuse the arrangement there, by and large, I think most Muslims behave themselves properly there and respect the sanctity of the place, and the rules of ihraam (forbidding certain things between genders) also provide extra incentive to behave correctly, even if they may run into each other by accident.
That being said, wearing an extra outer garment can help provide more personal space without inconveniencing others.
The hypocrites were in many places including Madina. The hypocrites were from different tribes and places including Makkah and Madina. Hypocrites used to join hands with enemies of Islam including Jewish enemies and Mushriks of Quraish and others.
The cause of the rift was the betrayal of Jewish leaders of that time and mischief they played against the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) and the Muslims. They wanted to join the enemies of Islam instead of protecting Madina. They had secret ties with the enemies of Islam and Muslims to destroy the Muslim state in Madina.
If you are asking about the 'direction' which the bury the person who dies in Makkah and is buried there, then they would be buried facing the Ka'bah - so in whichever part of the city the person is buried, they would always be buried facing the Ka'bah. All other funeral rites - the ghusl, kafan, etc. are the same.
There were certainly Jewish communities present in Medina at the time the muhajirun migrated there from Makkah.
At the beginning of the seventh century A.D., there were three Jewish tribes living in Medina (Yathrib). They were Banu Qainuka'a, Banu Nadhir and Banu Qurayza. All three tribes were rich and powerful, and also, they were more civilized than the Arabs. Whereas the Arabs were all farmers, the Jews were the entrepreneurs of industry, business and commerce in Arabia, and they controlled the economic life of Medina (Yathrib). The two Arab tribes – Aus and Khazraj – were debt-ridden to the Jews perennially.
Besides Medina, the strong centers of the Jews in Hijaz were Khyber, Fadak and Wadi-ul-Qura. The lands in these valleys were the most fertile in all Arabia, and their Jewish cultivators were the best farmers in the country.
The migration of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, from Makkah to Medina (then Yathrib), brought him into contact with the Jews for the first time. At the beginning they were friendly to him. He granted them the famous Charter of Medina, and they acknowledged him the ruler of their city, and agreed to abide by his decisions in all disputes. They also agreed to defend the city in the event of an invasion by an enemy.
But, unfortunately, this friendship did not last long.