Companions of the Prophet or aṣ-ṣaḥābah (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") were followers of Mohammed who "saw or met the prophet during his lifetime and were physically in his presence".
The default position when you stand up to commence prayer is putting hands on the side - sadl al-yadayn. This was the way Muslims in Medina, Makka, and later in cities such as Kufa, would have been praying, until the rise of the Umayyads in Syria.
The contrary position of qabd - folding hands - almost certainly got introduced by Mu’awiya and this Umayyad custom survived into Sunni orthodoxy, except for the Maliki madhhab.
Professor Yasin Dutton has written an interesting paper - Amal vs Hadith in Islamic Law - that tackles this topic where he says:
- The non-Sunni madhhab’s, however - the Ithna Asahri Shi’a, the Zaydi’s, the Isma’li’s and the Ibadi’s (Khawarij) - are all agreed, along with the majority of the Maliki’s, on sadl.
Shaykh Hamza Yusuf, a prominent contemporary Sunni scholar, has explained, in a video you can find online, how the act of folding hands, versus not, was seen as an indicator of political affiliation during those days such as the civil war between Imam ‘Ali and Mu’awiya. Clearly he sees sadl as the more authentic and well-evidenced position.
He makes the following key points:
- People who were on the side of Imam ‘Ali in the civil wars prayed with their hands by the side (sadl)
- Even the Khawarij who seceded from the side continued to pray like that.
- Later Shi’a Imams, for instance Imams al-Baqir and Ja’far al-Sadiq, prayed the same way, without folding.
- Basically the outward form of a person, practicing sadl or qabd, used to be an immediate and visual indicator of their political position with respect to Imam ‘Ali or Mu’awiya.
Hope this helps.
The criterion of hypocrites is disliking Imam Ali (AS) as the Prophetic Hadeeth states: No one likes Ali but a believer, and no one dislike him but a hypocrite. ( Saheeh Muslim 113) and Tirmithi 3651 and Al-Sunan Al-Suggra by al-Nasaa'ee 4978 and Sunan Ibn Maajah 111.
Soyooti narrated in his book al-Durr Al-Manthour, V.6, P.66 from Abdullah Ibn Mas'ood saying: During the time of the Messenger of Allah, we did not recognize the Munafiqs (Hypocrites) but only by their disliking Ali ibn Abi Talib.
There are many books of Elm al-Rijaal mentioning the good companions who remained faithful to the Prophet (SAWA) and Ahlul Bayt (AS). Allama Sharafuddin of Lebanon mentioned names of 160 companions from them in his book : Jarallah questions answers, page 14 to 25.
Sayyed Hasan al-Sadr of Kadhimiyyah, author of Nihayat al-Dirayah, mentioned names of hundreds of faithful companions.
These books and most of Elm al-Rijaal books are in Arabic.
Most of the companions who passed away during the life of the Prophet (SAWA) or been martyred in the battles of that period are praised. Those who remained faithful after the Prophet are also praised.
Additionally, Qur'an 47:30 says that the hypocrites could be recognized by their tone of speech (either their tone of voice, or the tone of their choice of words).
It is related on the exegesis of this verse that the Companions Abu Sa'id al-Khudri and Jabir ibn 'Abdallah al-Ansari said: 'Their tone of speech meant that they hated 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, and thereby we knew who the hypocrites were in the time of Allah's Messenger.'
Of course, the verse does not specify dislike of Imam 'Ali, but Imam 'Ali was known to be the sort of person that only a hypocrite or nefarious person would dislike.
In any case, 'tone of speech' can also be take in general to refer to other signs of hypocrisy in what they said.
The criterion for recognising the hypocrites is their negative attitude towards Ameerul Mo'mineen Ali (AS). Virtuous companions have heard from the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) that no one likes Ali but a believer, and no one dislikes Ali but a Munafiq (hypocrite). This authentic Hadeeth is narrated in Saheeh Muslim (number 113) and Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Tirmithi and Ibn Maajah and many books of Hadeeth.
I think it is 110 sahabah and 84 tabi'un, although I could be missing some since it's a big book.
This website has an extensive resource on the hadith of ghadir which may be of interest: https://www.al-islam.org/ghadir/
Alhamdulilah you have read about the incident of Ghadir and May Allah swt guide you to accept the divine authority of Imam Ali (as).
Firstly after becoming Shia, you will need to refer to the jurists who specialise in ahkaam or the Islamic laws. You will find some of the experts who say it is allowed to pray behind a Sunni imam provided that you recite the surahs yourself; others will say you can only do so out of taqiya (when one fears for their life & must conceal their faith).
Then you’ll find scholars who will say that one cannot pray behind a Sunni imam at all due to justice being one of the conditions as well as it being crucial that one prays correctly. Unfortunately our brothers who refer to themselves as Sunnis, perform both their salah and wudu in the incorrect way.
So when you choose a marja then you may check their ruling.
About the Sahaba, one can only respect the Sahaba who were PROVEN in history to be loyal to both the prophet Mohammad & his Ahlul Bayt (peace be upon them all). In other cases we may assume the best of those Sahaba who have nothing bad reported about them in history.
It has been proven from the Quran and hadiths of both sects, that there existed many hypocrites among the Sahaba. In the authentic sources of the sect who refers to itself as ahlus sunnah, you’ll find the prophet Mohamamd (sawa) clearly saying that among his companions were hypocrites therefore, how can one respect all Sahaba?
For example, can one love Muawiyah who encouraged people to curse & insult Imam Ali?! Of course not! Therefore one would have to disassociate from such people despite them being 'companions'.
Can one love Umar who threatened to burn down the house of Fatima Al-Zahra (as) and imam Ali (as)?
As for those companions who are proven praise worthy, then you may show your love towards them.
If you research the above matters you will find various sources which mention the points I have summarised.
May Allah grant you success
Huthaifa Ibn al-Yamaan was one of the very pious companions of the Proaphet Muhammad (SAWA) and Ameerul Mo'mineen (AS). He is one of the four best companions of the Prophet (SAWA).
He was informed by the Prophet about the names of the Munafiqeen (hypocrites). Omar Ibn al-Khattab used to repeatedly ask him: Did the Prophet mention my name with the Munafiqeen?
He used to boycott praying on dead body of any Munafiq. He did not pray on many well known persons in Madina.
The narration that Huthaifa took part in al-Yarmouk battle is not in our books but in a Sunni book called al-Waafi bil Wafayaat by al-Safadi (V.11, P. 251).We can not trust such narration.
Huthaifa fought against Mo'awiyah in the army of Ameerul Mo'mineen (AS) in Siffeen battle.
Huthaifa was requested by Omar and Uthman to look after al-Madaa'in. Omar and Uthman wanted to show respect to him being the person who has secrets from the Prophet. He accepted to help Muslims and protect them from corrupt rulers. Imam Ali (AS) also appointed him as a ruler on al-Madaa'in.
Abu Sa’eed al-Khurdi or al-Khidri is considered as one of the pious companions of the Prophet (Peace be Upon Him and His Holy Progeny). He was with the army of Ameerul Momeneen Ali (A.S.) fighting against his enemies. Ameerul Momeneen asked the companions who from you witnessed the incident of Ghadeer Khum. Only 17 man stood up and gave witness among them was Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri. He lived long as he was born 10 years before Hijra and he passed away in year 73 after Hijra, so his age was 83 years. From Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (A.S.) about him that he was a straight forward person. Al-Khishyee mentioned in the life of ibne Masa’ood and Huzaifa the names of the companions who referred to Ameerul Momeneen the name of Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri was with them. Al-Allama in his book Al-Khulaasa narrated from Al-Burqi that Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri was from the companions of Ameerul Momeneen Ali (A.S.). Abu Sa’eed al-Khidri is buried in Al-Baqiyah. His Name was Sa’aad Bin Malik Bin Sinaan and his Kunniyah was Abu Sa’eed. He was from the Al-Ansaar from Bani Khidra or Khurda.
In the reply which Imam Ali Ibne Moosa Ar-Reza (A.S.) has written to Al-Ma’moon about those companions who were following Ameerul Momeneen (A.S.) after the Prophet and did not change, he mentioned the name of Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri. Imam Hussain (A.S.) in Karbala in his speech told the army of Yazeed that you can ask Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri. The first battle in which Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri participated was Al-Khandaq than he took part in 12 other battles with Prophet (S.A.W.A.)
May Allah (SWT) bless his soul.
Shi'a respect and revere every sincere Muslim who remained obeying the Prophet (SAWA). The companions who took part in the battle of Badr are fully respected unless they did wrong after that. Haatib ibn Abi Balta'ah participated in Badr battle but later on he betrayed the Prophet and Islam by writing a secret letter to the Mushriks of Makkah informing them about the preparations of the Prophet to attack the Mushriks in Makkah.( Siyar A'lamm al-Nobalaa', page 43)
Qudamah ibn Madh'oon was also in Badr battle but later on he committed major sin of drinking alcohol and was punished for that during the government of Umarvibn al-Khattab. ( Siyar A'laam al-Nubalaa' page 162 and al-Esaabah fi Tamyeez al-Sahabah).
We highly respect every companion who fulfilled his duty in obeying Allah (SWT) and the Prophet (SAWA) and did not change till the end of his life.
No. In this day and age, this is basically a Salafi idea which is used to justify the belief that reconstructing society as it was during the first four caliphs will fix all the problems in the world.
Since Shi'is do not share the idea that society was ideal or perfect during the first four caliphates, and in fact point to a number of problems during that time, or things which were done which may have been against the Prophet's intent (whether relating to internal matters, such as the caliphate or financial management, or external matters, such as wars), this idea isn't found in Shi'ism.
In fact, we look forward to better times during the advent of the Mahdi (A)!
The Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) was putting all his efforts to teach, preach and protect Islam. He had to deal with persons who had tribal links to make their tribes near to Islam or away frm joining the enemies of Islam. He knew that many persons around him are not sincere Muslims but Munafiqs and he said it but with out naming them to avoid more harm for Islam. Allah (SW) in Quran has mentioned the hypocrites who come to the Prophet (SAWA) claiming that they believe in him, but Allah says that they are liars (Sura Al-Munafiqoon).
All the Prophets had around them good and bad persons and they could not expose the bad ones. Prophet Easa (AS) has suffered from a companion from his very close companions who reported him to the enemies to kill him but Allah (SWT) save Easa and raised him to the sky and made that betraying companion in the shape of Easa, then the enemies of Easa caught and killed and crucifies him.
Companions of Prophet Moses (AS) had among them good and bad as well, that is why, many of his companions worshipped an animal when Moses was away from the for 40 days, following one of their leaders (Al-Saamiri) and against the pious leader Haroon who was the successor appointed by Moses.