Ḥadīth (حديث ḥadīth, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث, ʼaḥādīth, also "Traditions") in Islam are the record of the words, actions, and silent approval, traditionally attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Within Islam the authority of hadith as a source for religious law and moral guidance ranks second only to that of the Quran.
Sunnis and Shi'is have different hadith collections.
However, there is some shared material between the collections - after all, the goal is to obtain the teachings of the Prophet (S), and the Prophet (S) was a single person.
Shi'is will generally allow for the use of some hadith from the Sunni books, depending on sourcing, narrator, and so forth. The reverse is much less common (that is, Sunnis do not usually give credence to Shi'i hadith for matters such as jurisprudence).
Shi'is do not give a special place to or automatically accept the sihah al-sittah or "six authentic books" famed in Sunnism.
Shi'is also give equal weight to the narrations from the Imams (A) as they do to narrations from the Prophet (S), on the grounds that the words of the Imams (A) are the teachings of the Prophet (S).
Hope that helps!
I don't think there is a full resource on this in English available presently (online or in print). However, you can purchase the Dirayat al-Noor software from Iran and it offers an easy to use database for hadith narrators in Arabic (not sure about Farsi). Another useful resource is Mu'jam Rijal al-Ahadith by Ayatollah al-Khoei, which is also available online in Arabic.
Sometimes, you can find information about some of the narrators in some other books in English. For instance, some of the biographies of the Imams by Baqir Sharif Qarashi have information on some of the companions of the Imams. There is a book called Tradition and Survival by Hossein Modarressi which also has some bibliographic information on some early Shi'i narrators.
So if there is someone specific you want to know more about, you may be able to find information in other sources. However in general I don't think there is a comprehensive source available in English. Perhaps someone will update this answer with one, or perhaps you will create one!
The environmental problems today are, in part, due to the attitude that spread during the Industrial Revolution that human beings have the God-given right to do whatever they want to the non-human world and use it as a product or resource. This was worsened by the push in capitalism to push people to consume beyond their needs. We know now today that this is not sustainable, although many of our livelihoods are stuck in this model.
In contrast, the Qur'an treats the natural universe as aware and part of a whole, rather than as a dead resource to be used however humans will. For instance, it says that everything in creation praises Allah, it speaks of the concerns of ants and the lives of bees, birds have opinions, and the earth is made to speak (when it is offered the "trust" before human beings, and at the end of time).
When the Qur'an says that Allah made the human being a khalifah, this is understood to mean that the human being has the responsibility to be a responsible caretaker, not an overlord, over creation. We may consume plants and animals and use the treasures of the earth and the sea, but not wastefully or wantonly, since the wasteful are the "brothers of the shayatin".
This holistic view characterises many pre-modern human socities (and some modern ones). Reviving this view can help to lead to a better way to treat the natural environment.
As mentioned, the Qur'an also tells us not to waste and calls the wasteful the "brothers of the shayateen". This is a very strong statement, and suggests that wasteful overconsumption is a form of evil or delusion (as Shaytan's primary tool is deception). Today many of us are bombarded by the delusions of mass advertising and mass media encouraging overconsumption or unhealthy consumption.
The Qur'an also tells us to eat and drink of the good things of the earth. This does not include many of the factory processed foods or unhealthy food production, such as Coca cola, which are some of the worst offenders in terms of packaging, production cost, etc. It also does not include abusive or destructive practices such as factory farming done unsustainably.
These verses are also taken to include our responsiblity environmentally:
* “And do not commit abuse on the earth, spreading corruption.” (Qur’an, 2:60)
* “And do not desire corruption in the land. Indeed, God does not like corruptors.” (Qur’an 28:77).
* "Corruption has appeared on the sea and land due to what has transpired by the hands of men" (Qur'an 30:41).
Here, fasad (corruption) is taken to include environmental destruction. Especially in the last verse, this understanding seems apt, because of what is happening that is our fault, especially when it is combined with other forms of corruption such as political corruption and corporate greed.
A number of hadith directly or indirectly point to the importance of looking after the environment. There are some in this article. These are from a Sunni provenance, although this isn't an issue where there is a sectarian difference. https://www.ecomena.org/islam-and-environmental-protection/
With all of this, one might ask why Muslims are not at the forefront of environmental protection. Some are; there are certainly Muslims working for sustainable farming practices, reduced waste, eco-friendly mosques, fighting pollution, and the like. However, the economic and political circumstances of Muslim-majority countries classified as "developing nations" has made this extremely different in the face of the modern socio-economic structure (especially when there are other considerations such as war).
Some further resources:
* Shaykh Jaffer Ladak has a number of speeches on the subject of environment and Islam and some other materials and would be a good resource.
* A conference paper published by Makbul Rahim on this environmental practices at Khoja Ithna Ashari Shia mosques and presented at The Islamic College in London.
* Seyyed Mostafa Damad, "A Philosophical Solution For The Environmental Crisis", in Journal of Shi‘a Islamic Studies, vol. 1, no. 1 (2008)
* And, of course, many others; for instance, if you search Google Scholar.
Procrastination and laziness can be a sinful act if it harms the rights of others or causes them any damage whether financial or social or personal etc.
Procrastination and laziness are from the bad habits of the hypocrites (Munafiqs). Quran mentions about Munafiqs: When they stand for Salah (Prayer), they stand with laziness.(Sura 4, Verse 142). There is also an attack in Quran on groups who claimed to be Muslims but were going against the orders of the Prophet. They were mentioned that they don't come for Salah but with laziness. (Sura 9, Verse 54).
In Quran there are many verses blaming those Muslims who used to procrastinate when orders of Allah come e.g. (O you who believe! What is the matter with you, that when you are asked to March forth in the Cause of Allah, you cling to the earth? Did you opt for this worldly life leaving Hereafter? Surely the enjoyment of this worldly life is very little compared with the Hereafter.) Sura 9, Verse 38.
There are many Hadeeths against procrastination and laziness e.g.
1. From Ameerul Mo'mineen that he has written to one of his companions: So, hurry up to utilize what has remained from your life and don't say tomorrow and day after, surely those who were perished before you because of their long hopes and procrastination till the order of Allah (death) came to them suddenly while they were unaware. Biharul Anwar; V.73, P.75.
2. From Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir (AS): Beware from procrastination and postponing, surely it a sea in which many people are destroyed. Biharul Anwar; V.73, P.365.
1. Folding hands in Salah
The Practice of folding hands in the Salah was never done by the Prophet (SAWA) but has come after his time from those who are away from Ahlulbayt (a.s.). The authentic Hadeeths from the Prophet regarding performing the Salah never mentioned folding his hands, that’s why you find in Saheeh Al-Bukhari the only narration in this regard from Sahl Ibn Sa’ad stating that in his time which was after the Prophet, (People were ordered to fold their hands). (People were ordered to fold their hands) means that the order was from the Government, otherwise no need to order people to fold their hands if the Prophet himself did fold His hands anytime. Folding hands was started by Umar Ibn Al-Khattab after the prisoner of war were brought from Persia to Madina, and they folded their hands in front of him. That was according to their customs of showing respect in their Custom and Magi worship. Umar liked that practice and ordered people to do it during the Salah. The order of Ummar to fold hands in Salah was rejected by the main pious companions and mainly by Ameerul Momeneen Ali (a.s.) who was openly saying “Open your hands in Salah and never resemble the Non-Muslims.
Even Sunni Scholars are not united in the matter of folding hands during Salah. The well known Sunni Sect “Maliki” which was established by Malik Ibn Anas, don’t fold their hands. The other 3 Sunni Sects; Hanafi, Shafi’ee and Hanbali, none of them said that folding hands is obligatory in Salah. The famous Sunni Scholar from Al-Azhar Shaikh Sayyed Sabiq in his encyclopaedia which is called Fiqh Al-Sunnah, stated that: We don’t have even one single authentic Hadeeth which states that the Prophet ever folded his hands during Salah.
Many Sunni important books stated that the well known companions Sahaba and followers of companions Tabi’een, used to pray opening their hands. Abdullah bin Al-Zubair used to open his hands in Salah.(Al-Majmuah Fi Sharh Al-Mohaddab, Volume 3 Page 311). Also Ibrahim Al-Najha’ee النخعي and Ibn Sirin and Layth Ibn Saad used to open their hands in Salah as it is mentioned in the same book Al-Majmuah Fi Sharh Al-Mohaddab, Volume 3 Page 311.
We have authentic Hadeeths from Ahlulbayt (a.s.) e.g. from Imam Mohammad Al- Baqir (a.s.) telling people not to fold their hands in Salah “لا تُكَفِّر ، إنما يصنع ذلك المجوس Never fold your hands in Salah,that is the act of their Majoos (Majis). Also in the famous Hadeeth known by Hadeeth Al-Arbamiya which included 400 teachings, Ameerul Mo’mineen saidلا يجمع المسلم يديه في صلاة “La Yajma al Muslim Yadaihi Fi Salat” The Muslim should not fold his hands during Salah.
because it is the practise of the Majoos and he said that the Muslim should not resemble the Non-Muslims in his worship. In the well known Sunni book Al Mughni by Ibn Qudama, he stated clearly that many of the well known Sahaba and Taabi’een never folded their hands in Salah. He mentioned that Ibn al-Zubayr never folded his hands in Salah also mentioned that Malik never folded his hands in Salah. Al-Mussannaf by Ibn Abi Shaibah mentioned in a separate chapter in his book those prominent Sunni personalities who never folded their hands in Salah. He mentioned that Al Hasan and Mugheera and Ibrahim they used to pray Salah opening their hands. (Hadeeth No. 3970 in Al-Musannif by Ibn Shayeba). In Hadeeth No. 3971, he stated that Abdullah Ibn Al-Zaubayr always used to pray his Salah opening his hands. In Hadeeth No. 3973 he stated that the narration from Abdullah Ibn Yazid who said I have never seen Ibn Al-Musayyab folding his hands in his Salah and he was always opening his hands during praying. Also in the same book (Al Musannif by Ibn Al-Shayeba Hadis No. 3974 ) a narrating from Yahya Ibn Saeed who is one of the very famous Ulama of Sunnis in Hadeeth, from Abdullah Ibn Al-Ayezaar who said: I was performing Tawaf with Saeed Ibn Jubayr who saw a man praying and putting his hand on the other hand, means folding his hands. Saeed Ibn Jubayr immediately went to that man and opened his hands, then came back to Tawaf.
This is few examples from the Sunni Books that folding hands is not the Sunnah of Prophet. There is also Hadeeth in Al-Mussannaf by Ibn Shayeba “Kitaab As-Salat” Volume 1 Page 427. The Hadeeth is from the Prophet (s.a.w.a) informing the Muslims that (I can see the Monks of the Jews folding their hands during the Salah). This is clear that folding the hands is not the practise of the Prophet or His followers but the practice of others. Obviously, it was taken from some Muslim rulers from others and ordered Muslim masses to do it as you read in Bukhari ( People were ordered to fold their hands in Salaah)(Bukhari, 1:135).
2.Takbeer after Salah
The authentic evidence from Ahlulbayt (a.s.) and from others stated that the Prophet Muhammad Peace be upon Him and His Holy Progeny used to end every Salah by saying Allah Hu Akbar three times. It is in Bukhaari in the chapter of الذكر بعد الصلاة aHadeeth narrated from Ibn Abbas stating that the Prophet used to raise His voice by Takbeer at the end of the obligatory Salah. Ibn Abbas also said that we used to know the end of the Salah by hearing the Prophet saying Allah hu Akbar 3 times that is in Volume 1 Page 204 in Bukhaari and in Sahih Muslim Volume 2 Page 91 & 92. And in Sunan Abi Dawood Volume 1 Page 226 in Bab Al-Takbeer Ba’d asSalah. Shafi’ee in his Musnad narrated from Ibn Abbas that: We used to know the end of the Salah by hearing the Prophet saying Takbeer 3 times. In Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal narrating from Ibn Abbas theHadeeth that I did not know the end of the Salah but only by hearing the Prophet saying 3 times Allahu Akbar. Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani in Fath Al-Bari, mentioned that this Hadeeth means that after Salah it is important to say 3 times Allah Hu Akbar.
Al Tabari mentioned that the Prophet used to say 3 times Allahu Akbar after Salah. Ibn Maaja in his Sunan Volume 1 Page 280 mentioned that the Prophet used to raise his hands and after very Salah and say Allah Hu Akbar. Al-Tabaraani in Al-Mojam al-Awsat , volume 9 , Page 105 narrated from Qutada: I asked Anus Ibn Malik to show us how the Salah/Prayer/Namaz of the Prophet was? Anas stood and prayed the Salah and he finished the Salah with the Takbeer . He was teaching them the Salah of the Prophet. We also have the same evidence in Musnad Al-Humaidi Volume 2 Page 277 and the narration is from Abdullah Ibn Umar that he saw someone praying Salah and not saying Takbeer, Abdullah Ibn Umar got angry on him and throw him with a small stone telling him to raise his hands and say Takbeer Allahu Akbar. We have also in the book of Al-Tamheed by Ibn Abd Al Bar Volume 19 Page 134 that the Takbeer 3 times is a part of the Salah. I will end with al-Albani who is well known Wahabi Shaikh who mentioned in his book Itmam Al Minnah إتمام المنة Page 172 that raising the hands with Takbeer has been narrated in authentic Hadeeths from the Prophet that he used to raise his hands and say Allahu Akbar.
The attack on the door of Fatima (s.a.) and setting fire to burn her door and her house has been mentioned in many authentic and prominent Sunni books as well as Shia books. From the Sunni books where you can find this attack has been mentioned is:
1. Al-Imamah Wal Siyasa by Ibn Qutaibah , Volume 1 Page 30. الإمامة والسياسة لابن قتيبة .
2. Al-Mukhtasar Fi Akhbaar Al-Bashar المختصر في أخبار البشر Volume 1 Page 156 by Abul Fida Ismael.
3. Tareekh Al-Tabari by Volume 3 Page 198.
4. Ansaab Al-Ashraaf by Al-Balathuri أنساب الأشراف للبلاذري Volume 1 Page 586.
5. Al-Milal Wal Nihal narrating from Al-Nadhdham Volume 1 Page 56.
6. Al-Iqd Al-Fareed by Ibn Abd Rabbeh Volume 5 Page 12.
7. Tareekh al-Ya’qoubi, V.2, P.126.
8. Al-Bad’ WAL-Tareekh by al-Maqdisi, 5:151.
9. Al-Kaamil fil Tareekh by Ibn al-Atheer, 2:325.
10. Al-Mussannaf by Ibn Shaibah, 8:572.
11. Al-Estee’aab by Ibn Abd al-Birr, 1:298.
12. Al-Waafi bil Wafayaat by al-Safadi, 2:227.
13. It is narrated in many prominent Sunni books that Abu Bakr when he was about to die, did mention that he committed three things in his life he wished that he never did any of them. One of them is his attacking the house of Fatima (s.a.). This statement of Abu Bakr confirms the attack on the house of Fatimah and it is narrated in many Sunni books like:
14. Mizaan al-E’tidaal by Al-Dhahabi, Volume 2 Page 215.
15. In Kanzul Ummal , Volume 5 Page 631.
16. In Lisaan Al-Mizaan by Al-Asqalani Volume 4 Page 219.
17. In Murooj Al-Dhahab, Volume 2 Page 301.
18. In Al-Imamah Was-Siyasah by Ibn Qutaiba Volume 1 Page 18
19. and In Tareeq Al-Tabarri Volume 2 Page 619.
All these Sunni references and many others prove that the attack on the house of Fatima did happen and her door was burnt by the attackers.
Prayer method is stated in authentic Hadeeths from the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) and Ahlul Bayt (AS) which are narrated through authentic narrators in books like Wasa'il al-Shia in the volumes of Salah.
Many Shia books of Hadeeth are already translated including all-Kafi. Many books are under translation. You can check on www.shiasearch.org
There are many narrations. If you send the full or main part of the narration, it will be easier then to search for its narrators and study their status in I'lm al-Rijal. Please mention also the book where you saw the narration and the edition.
There is no book of Hadeeth compiled by Shia or Sunni scholars which is 100% and fully authentic in each and every narration. Al-Kafi is the most authentic book of Hadeeth among Shia scholars. Bukhari is claimed to be fully authentic by many Sunnis but it contains narrations which go against Quran and allegation against the Prophets. The authentic Hadeeths in Al-Kufi are more in number than all the total authentic Hadeeths in all the six books of Sunni Hadeeth الصحاح الستة.
Number of unrepeated narrations in Saheeh al-Bukhari is 2602 and in Saheeh Muslim 4000, while the number of unrepeated narration mentioned in both Bukhari and Muslim is 2514 narrations.
Al-Kafi alone has 16199 narrations.
This Hadeeth has been narrated in many wordings but with the same meaning. This called Tawaatur Ma'nawi تواتر معنوي.
In Saheeh Muslim , V. 6, P. 22 Kitab al-Imaarah : Who dies without allegiance in his neck, will die a death of Jahiliyyah.
In Musnad Ahmed Ibn Hanbal , V. 4, P. 96: Who dies with out Imam, will die a death of Jahiliyyah.
In Kitab al-Sunnah by Ibn Abi 'Aassim , P. 489: Who dies with out Imam on him will die a death of Jahiliyyah.
The Hadeeth is also narrated in the most authentic Shia books of Hadeeth like al-Kaafi, V.1, P.276 and in many other books. It means that the meaning of this Hadeeth is Ijmaa' (unanimous) between all Muslims.
You could ask them to provide a coherent answer to who it does refer to, because it is quite a struggle to find a list of 12 names - other than the 12 Imams - that somehow relate to each other and aren't arbitrary that fit that hadith.
However, these discussions are usually unfruitful because usually people approach them with their own preconceived biases in mind, so you have to decide whether or not there will be a benefit to the debate. Sometimes it is good just to say your point once, and then move on and let them ponder it on their own.
There is a lot of material you could look at online including on this website for more details on that hadith and ways it has been interpreted by Sunnis and Shi'is.