Ḥadīth (حديث ḥadīth, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث, ʼaḥādīth, also "Traditions") in Islam are the record of the words, actions, and silent approval, traditionally attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Within Islam the authority of hadith as a source for religious law and moral guidance ranks second only to that of the Quran.
as salam alaikum
Absolute wilayah belong to Allah and He has authority over all His creation. He creates as He wishes and He gives authority to whoever He wills in order to establish His own authority.
In some theological treatises two types of wilayah have been mentioned:
- Wilayah Takwiniyyah: that is creational authority like direct intervention and control over things and affairs in the creation. The human power to walk, to climb, to carry heavy loads, etc. are all examples of this authority.
- Wilayah Tashri'iyyah: that is legislative authority like the right or duty to establish a specific ruling or take a particular decision after a legitimate approval or consultation.
In theological debates the discussion around these arguments focused on the limits of the wilayah in relation to the Prophet and Imams, peace be upon them.
Miracles are instances of wilayah takwiniyyah that Allah bestowed upon His prophets; it is however a divine act beyond ordinary human faculties. As far as the legislative aspect, it is known that the Prophet, peace be upon him and his family, was subject to specific rulings only for him with the exclusion of the rest of the Ummah. Yet, the rule was from Allah and not from himself.
Some scholars have claimed that Allah has given total or partial authority to the Prophet and Imams, peace be upon them, for the administration of the world and that they have control over it, at least partially, with His permission. They base their opinion relying on certain hadith and some intellectual concepts. This is the maximum extent of the concept of wilayah takwiniyya in relation to the Prophet and Imams.
Other scholars however reject such view and consider it against the Qur'an, implicitly or explicitly, based on conjectures and weak ahadith.
With prayers for your success.
Shia Hadeeth books are in thousands, written along 1400 years. There is no comprehensive full list of Shia Hadeeth books, as there is comprehensive list of all Sunni books of Hadeeths. Nevertheless, there are well known books which contain names of Shia books on different fields of knowledge, including Quran, Hadeeth, Tafseer, Faith, history etc. One of the most famous encyclopedia in this subject is Al-Tharee'ah Ela Tassaneef Al-Shia by Agha Bozorg al-Tehrani who compiled this list of Shia books in more than 25 volumes mentioning 53510 Shia books. The author spent fifty years in compiling this encyclopedia.
We have many old books written in this subject like Fihrist Abi-Jafar Al-Toosi and Fihrist Abil-Abbas Al-Najashi and other old books.
The main books of Hadeeth which are available are:
1. Al-Kaafi by Al-Kulaini compiling 16099 Hadeeths.
2. Manla Yahdharohul Faqeeh by Al-Shaikh Al-Sadooq compiling 9044 Hadeeths.
3. Al-Tahtheeb by Al-Shaikh Al- Toosi compiling 13095 Hadeeths.
4. Al-Estibsaar by Al-Shaikh Al-Toosi compiling 6531 Hadeeths.
5. Al-Waafi by Al-Fayadh Al-Kashani compiling 25703 Hadeeths.
6. Bihaarul Anwar by Al-Majlisi in 110 Volumes.
7. Wasaa'el Al-Shia by Al-Horr Al-Aamili compiling 35868 Hadeeths.
8. Mustadrak Al-Wasaa'el by Al-Noori compiling 23158.
9. Al-Khisal by Al-Shaikh Al-Sadooq.
10. Oyoon Akhbar Al-Ridha by Al-Shaikh Al-Sadooq.
11. Amaali Al-Sadooq.
12. Amaali Al-Mufeed.
13. Jaami' Ahaadeeth Al-Shia in 31 volumes.
14. Basaa'r Al-Darajaat.
15. Qurb Al-Isnaad.
16. Al-Mahaasin by Al-Borqi.
17. Elal Al-Sharaae'.
18. Ma'aani Al-Akbaar.
19. Kaamil Al-Ziyaaraat.
20. Thawab Al-A'maal.
21. Amaali Al-Murtadha.
22. Irshad Al-Qoloob.
23. Tawheed Al-Sadooq.
24. Tohaf Al-Oqool by Ibn Sho'bah.
25. Al-Ehtijaaj by Al-Tabrasi.
26. Tafseer Furat Al-Koofi.
27. Tafseer Al-Qummi.
28. Kifayah ul Athar.
29. Tafseer Al-'Ayyashi.
30. Ma'aani Al-Akhbaar.
and many other books of Hadeeths.
as salam alaikum
apart from the general books of ahadith, some contemporary scholars have authored specific compilations like "Nahj al-Fasahah" by Abul-Qasim Payandeh and "Sunan al-Nabi" by Allamah Tabataba'i.
Amongst early collections, the "Musnad al-Imam al-Kazim" and the "Sahifah al-Imam al-Rida", reports most of their ahadith on the authority of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family.
With prayers for your success.
We find in many Quranic verses the mention of number forty:
and Al-Ahqaaf 15.
We also find in many Hadeeths the mention of the number forty.Forty years in Quran is the peak of the development of the human being (Al-Ahqaaf 15).
Forty years was the period of the punishment of Bani Isreal (Al-Ma'edah 26).
Forty nights was the period of the absence of Musa from his community to test them.
Forty days is the period after the martyrdom of Imam Husain (AS) when his son Imam Sajjad (AS) and his family returned back to visit him in Karbala. That is the time of Ziyarat al-Arba'een attended by millions every year.
It means that this number has important indication for reaching to maturity or completing the aim which Allah (SWT) wants. Details of the secrets of this number is best known to Allah (SWT) and His messenger and Ahlul Bayt (AS).
Our Shia scholars are always very strict in assessing every narration by studying and assessing every narrator
of every Hadeeth. There is no scope in our books of Hadeeth to accept
any narration or consider any narration which is politically motivated
as our leading scholars in our history stood against every tyrant
ruler whether he was a Sunni or a Shia. So no narration is accepted if
there is s slightest doubt that it is fabricated for the sake of
pleasing the rulers or justifying their wrong deeds.
Every narration is studied assessed by our scholars through :
1. Studying all its narrators one by one to see up to what extend they are honest and truthful.
2. Also up to what extend the narration can be confirmed from him and before and after him. This is a specialized process in Elm Al-Hadeeth and Elm Al-Rijal.
3. Studying the content of the narration to be sure that it does not contradict with Quran or authentic Hadeeths.
Ahlul Bayt (AS) recorded and ordered their followers to record the knowledge. All supplications and sermons and Hadiths were written.
Ameerul Momineen was writing the knowledge from the Prophet in a book called Al-Jami’ah الجامعة.
All our Infallible Imams used to write and order their followers to write.
There does not appear to be much in-depth history on the circumstances of these narrations and who transmitted them. By the time that they were narrated in Bukhari and Muslim the concept of 'Imam' did exist explicitly and was known in wider circles. It certainly would not have been in the interests of Bukhari to cite a narration that mentioned the word 'Imam' and 'Bani Hashim', since that would have clearly overturned the forced legitimacy of Abu Bakr and 'Umar's caliphates. In particular 'Umar held that that the successorship belonged to 'the people' (meaning Quraysh). The Uthmaniyya, being of Quraysh, therefore held that the caliphate belonged to them. One can surmise that perhaps there may have been narrations in circulation predicting twelve Imams, but that the wording had been 'adjusted' to mask the true implication, if not to 'redirect' the meaning of the narration to suit political purposes. It really needs an expert like Suleiman Ali Mourad (who has analysed the 'transferral of authorship' between the Ahl al-Bayt (as) and various figures in the Sufi tradition, i.e. the attribution to Sufi figures of sayings of the Ahl al-Bayt) to do a proper textual, historical analysis of these narrations.
The circulated narration is not authentic at all and it contradicts with the authentic narrations from the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) that his successors will be twelve only.
Those who are behind circulating this false narration are trying to prove a claim of a person in Basra Iraq who is been financed by enemies of Shia to create a rift between the Shia. He claims that he is the son of the Imam Al-Mahdi (AS) while people of his town know his father and family and confirm that he is a liar.
More details about this liar and his false claims and his financiers are available on many Shia websites.
Yes, the hadith exists. However, some people use it to promote movements or groups that are active today, and that is not correct. The hadith is speaking about the time AFTER the reappearance of the 12th Imam (i.e. the Mahdi), an event that will be accompanied by major signs. We will know when it happens, and it has not happened yet!
The hadith is mentioned in Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 53, p. 148, no. 6 and 7. One says that after the Mahdi (A) appears, the other Imams will be brought back to life and live and die, and then after them, 12 "mahdis". The other just speaks of 12 "mahdis" after the "mahdi".
Since this hadith is about something predicted for the end of time, it isn't possible to say whether it is correct or not. There is consensus on certain general predictions for the end of time - such as the return of the Mahdi, the raj'ah or return to life of those of most intense faith and most intense wickedness, and some major signs. However, details like this may or may not be accurate.
The major Sunni hadith collections were compiled before the major Shi'i collections primarily because the Shi'is had the 12 Imams to rely upon to answer their questions, and the 12 Imams are considered to be absolutely accurate in their transmission of hadith from the Prophet (S).
Additionally, Shi'is were subject to intense persecution for much of their early history, and so it was more difficult to compile such books.
As for the correctness or incorrectness of hadith, this is a subject discussed in depth in the study of hadith, and I would recommend that you read some books on the subject. Here is a suggestion: https://www.amazon.com/Introduction-Hadith-Abd-Al-Hadi-Al-Fadli/dp/1904063470
However, one area that the Shi'is had an advantage is that hadith were being recorded during the lifetimes of the Imams (in that the major compilations, such as al-Kafi, were not the first records of hadith), whereas Sunni recording of hadith, for the most part, only started a hundred years after the Prophet (S). (I use the term "Sunni" loosely here to refer to what eventually became Sunnism)
This is a complicated question, since Muslims of differing sects have differing opinions about what hadith narrators are deemed acceptable, or which hadith are deemed acceptable.
For this reason, I feel it is best to let the content speak for itself, and so I invite you to read Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim carefully. Do you feel that all of the narrations reflect a deep, dignified set of teachings about God, ethics, or the Prophet (S)? Do you feel that all the narrations are in accordance with reason and an enlightened worldview?
Certainly, some of them are, but you only need to find one or two that are not to suggest that they are all not.
For instance, might I point to a narration in the section on the "oneness of God" (the final chapter), in which the Prophet Sulayman (A) has relations with 60 wives in one night. This is of course his personal business, but is it really realistic, respectful, or necessary to even mention it? And, what is this doing in a chapter on God? Yes, there is a point to the narration (that one should say "if Allah wills" for everything), but this is hardly a serious discussion about the nature of Allah. In fact, most of the narrations in this chapter are rather shallow and do not really add much to our understanding of the nature of Allah apart from some surface level things.
If, after reading Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, you feel that they are all transmitted from a man of God, or on behalf of him by his close supporters, that's fine and is your perspective. After all, there have been plenty of Muslims historically that embraced these books. I am not of that view, but that's part of why I'm not Sunni. Allah in the Qur'an encourages us to think.
(However, here is someone's work on the topic which you could consider: https://www.al-islam.org/critical-assessment-sahih-bukhari-and-sahih-muslim-sayyid-ali-al-husayni-al-milani)
As for al-Kafi, there is no need to consider it all as true. However, one could say that it contains truth and that much of it is true. Anyway, if you take one subject - say, the oneness of God - and compare the sections of Sahih al-Bukhari and al-Kafi, you will find a significant difference in terms of the depth of the discussion. But, I leave it to you to do the comparison.