Fasting in Islam, (known as Sawm (صَوْم) or Siyām (صِيَام), also commonly known as Rūzeh or Rōzah (Persian: روزه)), is the practice of abstaining, usually from food, drink, smoking, and sexual activity. During the Islamic holy month of Ramadan Sawm is observed between dawn and sunset when the evening adhan is sounded.
Kaffara is obligatory when the person deliberately committed the sinful act of not fasting during the month of Ramadhan. If his health does not allow him to fast, and he has no money to feed sixty poor persons, then he should feed the number of poor persons which he can, and recite Estighfaar.
If a person deliberately did not fast any day of the Month of Ramadhan, he has committed a sinful act and he must that day as Qadha and he must fast two months or feed sixty poor Momineen for not fasting that day.
Exams is not be a valid reason to leave fasting, so, the above rule is applicable.
Wife needs her husband's permission to go out if her going out contradicts with his rights as a husband and needs from her.
If the husband permitted her to go out and she thinks that the situation is same, then no need for repeated permission every time, as far as she knows that he will not object. This is called ITHN AL_FAHWA اذن الفحوى (Understood permission).
Recommended fast also needs husband permission if it contradicts with his rights as husband on his wife. If husband needs his wife for intimacy relationship during the day, she can not refuse him because of recommended fast.
as salam alaikum
you should ask forgiveness to Allah and sincerely turn to Him: He is the All-Forgiving. The Qur'an says: "Do not despair of the mercy of Allah. Surely He forgives all sins" (39:53).
If you are remorseful for your mistake and you do not intend to repeat it again, put your full trust in Him and continue to look for His mercy that embraces all things, insh'Allah you will be successful.
With prayers for your success.
It is required to fast whole one month and one day after the month, that will make 31 days ( depending on the month). After fasting 31 days with out any gaps, you can then have a gap.
If some one is unable to fulfill the Kaffara on him in any way as you mentioned in your question, he must then recite Estighfaar as many times as he can.
Sh'is do not accept the hadith saying to fast on Ashura as valid. They are considered fabrications which came about in/after the time of Yazid to promote Ashura as a day of celebration. (Indeed, in some areas, Ashura is still celebrated as a holiday.)
For more information, you can look at resources such as this: https://www.al-islam.org/understanding-karbala-allamah-sayyid-saeed-akhtar-rizvi/appendix-4-fasting-ashura
In the whole year, the days on which fasting is not permissible are
the 2 Eids of Fitr and Adhha. It is Makrooh (disliked) to fast on the day of Ashura. It
is permissible to fast on all the other days of the year.
Besides the obligatory fast of the whole month of the Ramadhan
, in the other 11 months, it is recommended to fast on any 3
days although there is special mention in the books of narrations to
fast on the 1st and the last Thursday of the lunar month and on the
Wednesday of the middle 10 days of the month.
We also have Hadeeths that the Holy Prophet (SAWA) used to fast on
every Thursday and Monday.
Recommended fast will be not allowed if it contradicts with any obligatory like the rights of the husband on his wife. Wife is not allowed to fast a recommended fast if it harms her husband's rights.
No, they do not need to repeat them.
This narration is not authentic at all, not only among our Shia Ulama but even among many Sunni Ulama like Maalik Bin Anas and other leading Sunni Ulama , who denied the existence any such Hadeeth.
There is no outward sin in doing that, that but it could be a sign of a deeper issue in the family relationship that needs resolution, perhaps with the help of local counsellors.
It is not allowed to break the fast before the start of the night as we read in Quran (ثم أتموا الصيام إلى الليل ) (And complete fasting till night). This is the Quranic order which can never be challenged. This is for all people who have day and night in 24 hours.
If you live in a place where there is no day and night in 24 hours, then you need to either leave the place to another place where there is day and night in every 24 hours or to follow the timings of Salah of the nearest place to you. There is question at all to follow the timings of places which very far away from your place like Makkah, Madina, Najaf, Karbala etc.