Fasting in Islam, (known as Sawm (صَوْم) or Siyām (صِيَام), also commonly known as Rūzeh or Rōzah (Persian: روزه)), is the practice of abstaining, usually from food, drink, smoking, and sexual activity. During the Islamic holy month of Ramadan Sawm is observed between dawn and sunset when the evening adhan is sounded.
If what you mean by deliberately is that you did not have a valid excuse, then you must:
1. Repent to Allah ta'ala, asking for His forgiveness, if you have not done it yet.
2. Pay the kaffarah, of feeding of 60 poor people.
3. Redo those days, as qadha', and you redo only the days you are certain of, which would be the least amount. In this question, it would be 12 days of qadha`.
And Allah knows best.
If the 40 years of fasting that they missed was with a valid excuse, then all they need to do is pay a 'fidya' for each day. A fidyah is 3/4 of a kilo of food, given to poor.
If they did not have an excuse, then they must:
1. Repent to Allah ta'ala.
2. Pay kaffarah for each day. Kaffarah is feeding of 60 poor people (most common option).
3. Write in their will that they have this amount of qadha' fasting to be done once they die, either by their next of kin, or they pay someone who will fast as qadha` on their behalf.
Furthermore, from this holy month of Ramadhan, because they cannot fast, they can pay the fidyah.
And Allah knows best.
It is permissible to place something solid in one's mouth while fasting, for the purpose of cooling down, or naturally creating saliva, as long as it is not swallowed, or taken out and placed back in mouth again.
An example for this is putting a coin in your mouth.
And Allah knows best.
We have narrations that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) used to fast on Monday because it was his birthday in the week. ( Saheeh Muslim, Hadeeth number 1162). Celebrating our birthday should be in this prophetic way to thank Allah (SWT) that He created us and thank His great bounties on us. Celebrating of birthday should not make the person feel proud or think whatever he has is because of his own smartness forgetting the real source of all bounties, Allah (SWT).
Celebrating our birthdays must be thank giving and practicing humbleness. Fasting is a very good way to thank Allah Who created us as well as giving charity and being more nice to our parents and relatives.
He must fast the number of days which he is sure that he has missed. If he estimates that he missed between 3 to 6 days, he must fast three days as it is the days that he is sure that he missed. Fasting more will be a precaution ( Ehtiyat).
Fasting the day of Ashura is called by our Imams as (The Fast of Ibn Marjana) according to the narrations. Ibn Marjana was the commander of the army of Yazeed who killed Imam Husain (AS).
It is Makrouh (Disliked) to fast that day. Ibn Marjana and his people wanted to celebrate the day of Ashura to make Muslims forget their crime, that it why they paid lot of money to false narrators to fabricate narrations encouraging people to fast and celebrate that day. We have evidence that narrations encouraging fasting on the day of Ashura are fabricated by enemies of Ahlul Bayt (AS).
The recommended on the day of Ashura is to remember the tragedy of Karbala and weep and cry on it and refrain from eating and drinking till after noon. This is called Faqa.
It is permissible but it is strongly disapproved of (makruh) by the Imams. However, it is recommended to eat or drink simply towards the end of the day such that one is not considered fasting, rather than indulging.
It is good to keep in mind that the custom of fasting on Ashura relates to celebrations by the Umayyads over their victory and also false narrations claiming that the day of Ashura was significant for other reasons (apart from the martyrdom of Imam Husayn) which were attempts to deflect attention away from Imam Husayn.
If you doubt whether your previous prayers and fasting were performed with or with out Ghusl of Janabah, then you do not need to re do it, but if you are sure that you did not perform Ghusl of Janabah, then you need to re do it as Qadha.
Allah is The Most Merciful, The Most companionate and The best Forgiver.
When Allah knows your sincere repenting feelings, He will grant His mercy on you.
You need to make up (Qadha) all the missed worships.
Your fast is valid because you did not do that deliberately.
No. Living person can not hire someone to perform obligatory prayers or obligatory fast on his behalf. No one can perform such obligatory prayers and fast on behalf of any living person.
It is only Hajj if the living person is absolutely disabled and completely unable to perform Hajj in person even by being carried by others, then it will be permissible for him to hire someone to perform obligatory Hajj on his behalf.
Any one can hire some one to perform recommended Hajj or Umra or Ziyarat on his behalf. Ali Ibn Yaqteen who was a pious companion of Imam Musa Al-Kadhim (AS), used to hire 25 persons every year to perform recommended Hajj on his behalf.
The real time of Fajr is when the light starts appearing on the horizon. This is called true dawn or Al- Fajr al-Sadiq.
This light on the horizon increases gradually. We call it true dawn to distinguish between it and false dawn or zodiac dawn which happens before the true dawn.
False dawn looks like a mostly vertical column or pyramid, and it keeps on decreasing, in contrast to the horizontal increasing true dawn.
The real dawn is the time of morning prayer and end of Suhoor. It is good to stop eating and drinking little while before that to be sure that you did not eat or drink after Fajr.
If you know the exact time of real Fajr, you can eat and drink till a moment before it, but many people stop eating and drinking about ten minutes before the published time of Fajr because they are not sure about the exact time of Fajr, so they want to do precaution.