Imam 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي, translit. ʿAlī, 15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Prophet Muhammad (s). He is the first Imam of Shi'a Muslims and the fourth Rightly Guided Caliph of the Sunni Muslims. He was born on Rajab 13, 23 BH (March 17, 599 AD) inside the Holy Ka'ba in Mecca.
Imam Ali (AS) had been ordered by the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) not to fight against them as that can initiate civil war among Muslims and that exactly was what those people and the enemies of Islam want. He controlled over himself as he said : I kept patience with all the hardships فصبرت وفي الخلق شجى وفي العين قذى
Imam Ali (AS) obeyed the orders of the Prophet (SAWA) in not fighting. He had no aim but preserving Islam for the all coming generations and not letting the evil acts of some persons cause damage to the Message which was sent to guide the whole human beings all the time.
He said: I will remain peaceful as far as Islam safe and injustice is on me and my family.
All Muslims believe that every thing is in the hands of Allah (SWT) and we seek help of the most humble servants of Allah who are the Prophet and his Holy Progeny to pray to Allah for fulfilling our wishes and needs.
Esmaeli and all Muslim sects are no exception.
Here are 12 pieces of evidence that show that Mu'awiya used to curse, and encourage the cursing of, Imam Ali b. Abi Talib.
EVIDENCE 1 - IBN HAJAR AL-’ASQALANI
ثم كان من أمر علي ما كان فنجمت طائفة أخرى حاربوه ثم أشتد الخطب فتنقصوه واتخذوا لعنه على المنابر سنة
“Then it was the matter of Ali and a group of people fought against him, then the situation got more complicated and they began to belittle him and they made cursing Ali from the pulpits, a regular habit”
Source - Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 7 page 57
EVIDENCE 2 - MUHAMMAD ABU ZAHRA
“And during the reign of Banu Umayya the dignity of Ali was attacked, he was cursed because Mu’awiya during his reign introduced the ugly bid`ah of cursing Ali.
His successors continued this tradition until the reign of Umar bin Abdul Aziz. The tradition entailed cursing the Imam of Guidance Ali at the end of the Friday Sermons, the Sahaba’s remonstrations that this was wrong was ignored, Mu’awiya and his Governors refused to desist from their actions.
Ummul’Momineen Salma (ra) wrote a letter to Mu’awiya and his respective Governors reminding them that by cursing ‘Ali they were in fact cursing Allah (swt) and his Prophet (s)”.
Source - Ta’rikh Madhahib al-Islam, Volume 1 page 35
EVIDENCE 3 - AL-DHAHABI
He has recorded the following statement of an important early Sunni scholar called Abd al-Rahman b. ‘Amr al-Awza’i (d. 157 H):
سمعت الأوزاعي يقول : ما أخذنا العطاء حتى شهدنا على علي بالنفاق وتبرأنا منه
Al-Awzai said: ‘We didn’t obtain gifts until we testified that Ali was a hypocrite and declared our disavowal towards him”.
Source - Siyar A’lam al-Nubala, Volume 7 page 130
EVIDENCE 4 - AL-TABARI - A
When Muawiya Ibn Abi Sufyan put al-Mughairah Ibn Shubah in charge of Kufah in Jumada 41 (September 2- October 30, 661), he summoned him. After praising and glorifying God, he said:
“Now then, indeed a forbearing person has been admonished in the past… The wise might do what you want without instruction. Although I have wanted to advise you about many things, I left them alone, trusting in your discernment of what pleases me, what helps my regime and what sets my subjects [raiyyah] on the right path. I would continue to advise you about a quality of yours- do not refrain from abusing Ali and criticizing him, not from asking God’s mercy upon Uthman and His forgiveness for him. Continue to shame the companions of Ali, keep at a distance, and don’t listen to them. Praise the faction of Uthman, bring them near, and listen to them.”
Source - History of Tabari, English version, events of year 51 AH, Execution of Hujr Ibn Adi, v18, pp 122-123
EVIDENCE 5 - AL-TABARI - B
“The Messenger of Muawiya then came to them (Ziyad) with orders to release six and to kill eight, telling them:
We have been ordered to let you disavow Ali and curse him. If you do so, we shall release you, and if you refuse, we shall kill you. “
Source - History of Tabari, English version, events of year 51 AH, v18, p149
EVIDENCE 6 - AHMAD B. HANBAL
“From Abdillah al-Mazini who said: ‘When Muawiya left Kufa he employed al-Mughirah ibn Shubah. ’He said: al-Mughirah hired orators to insult Ali’.”
Source - Musnad Ahmad, Volume 3 page 185
EVIDENCE 7 - HASAN B. FARHAN AL-MALIKI
والي المدينة وهو مروان بن الحكم في زمن معاوية كان يسب ويأمر بسب علي على المنابر، هذه حقيقة تاريخية ثابتة
“The governor of Madina, Marwan bin al-Hakam during the reign of Mu’awyia used to curse Ali and ordered the cursing of Ali from the pulpits; this is an affirmed historical fact.”
Source - Nahw Inqad al-Ta’rikh, Volume 3 page 22
EVIDENCE 8 - MUSLIM B. HAJJAJ
“The Governor of Medina who was one of the members of the house of Marwan called Sahl Ibn Sa’d, and ordered him to curse Ali. But Sahl refused to do so. The governor said: “If you don’t want to curse Ali, just say God curse Abu Turab (the nickname of Ali).” Sahl said: “Ali did not like any name for himself better than Abu Turab, and Ali used to become very happy when somebody would call him Abu Turab.”
Source - Sahih Muslim, Chapter of Virtues of Companions, Section of Virtues of Ali, Arabic version, v4, p1874, Tradition #38
EVIDENCE 9 - IBN TAYMIYYA
وقد كان من شيعة عثمان من يسب عليا ويجهر بذلك على المنابر
“There were from the followers of Uthman ones who used to abuse Ali openly from the Mosque pulpits”
Source - Minhaj al Sunnah, Volume 6 page 201
وأما حديث سعد لما أمره معاوية بالسب فأبى
“While the narration about Sa’d (relates to) when Mu’awyia ordered him to curse (‘Ali) but he refused”
Source - Minhaj al-Sunnah, Volume 5 page 42
EVIDENCE 10 - AL-QURTUBI
وقول معاوية لسعد بن أبي وقاص : ما منعك أن تسب أبا تراب ؛ يدل : على أن مقدم بني أمية كانوا يسبون عليا وينتقصونه
“The statement of Mu’awyia to Sa’d bin Abi Waqas “What prevents you from cursing Abu Turab” indicates that the first generation of Bani Umayya would abuse and belittle Ali.”
Source - Al-Mufhim, Volume 20 page 25
EVIDENCE 11 - IBN KATHIR
فاشترط أن يأخذ من بيت مال الكوفة خمسة آلاف ألف درهم، وأن يكون خراج دار أبجرد له، وأن لا يسب علي وهو يسمع
“He (Hasan) placed conditions of having five million from Kufa’s treasury, the income from the taxes of the city of Darabjird and not to curse Ali when he (al Hasan) could hear that”
Source - Al Bidayah wal Nihayah, Volume 8 page 17
EVIDENCE 12 - IBN ‘ABD RABBIH
“When Hassan bin Ali died, Mu’awyia performed the Hajj, and then entered into Madina where he wanted to curse Ali from Prophet’s pulpit, thus they said to him: ‘Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas is right here and he will not accept your behaviour, you should ask him first.’ Thus he sent for him and asked him about this to which he (Sa’d) said: ‘If you did it, I shall leave the mosque and never come here again.’
Thus Mu’awiya restrained himself from cursing (Ali) until Sa’d passed away, when Sa’d died, he cursed him (Ali) from the pulpit and also ordered his governors to curse him from the pulpits and they (his governors) did likewise. Then Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet (pbuh), wrote to Mu’awyia saying: ‘You are cursing Allah and his Messenger from your pulpits and that is as a result of cursing Ali bin Abi Talib and his lovers and I testify that Allah and his Messenger love him.’ However he (Mu’awyia) didn’t pay any attention to her statement”.
Source - al-’Iqd al-Farid, Volume 3 page 300
The practice of cursing and swearing at Imam Ali (a.s.) was officially introduced by Mu'awiyah.
It then became a custom for most of the Ummayad rulers, and continued for nearly 70 years. There are cases of some who refused to curse Imam Ali (a.s.), and they were severely punished.
Unfortunately, some Sunni scholars not only praise Mu'awiyah, but also refuse to accept this historical fact.
Of course, something that is worse than Mu'awiyah cursing Imam Ali (a.s.) was Mu'awiyah fighting against Imam Ali (a.s.) in the Battle of Siffin, and then usurping the khilafah from Imam Hasan (a.s.), and all the other atrocities he committed.
Here are some references from Sunni sources that mention Mu'awiyah cursing and/or commanding others to curse:
Sahih Muslim, vol. 7, p. 120, ch. merits of Ali.
Sunan Tirmidhi, vol. 5, p. 301.
Mustadrak 'ala al-Sahihayn, vol. 3, p. 109. [also see: vol. 1, p. 541].
Such things have also been mentioned in:
Musnad Ahmad, vol. 4, p. 369.
Tarikh al-Tabari, 124.
Tarikh al-Khulafa, 232.
Muruj al-Dhahab, vol. 3, p. 42.
The famous Sunni scholar al-Zamakhshari says that during the Ummayad era, seventy thousand pulpits were cursing Imam Ali (a.s.), introduced by Mu'awiyah. See; Rabi' al-Abrar.
Here is a link that has some of these narrations:
With prayers for your success.
The enemies of Imam Ali (AS) have fabricated a meaning of a saying from the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) to Imam Ali (AS) away from the real meaning. The Hadeeth is narrated in Shia and Sunni books that the Prophet (SAWA) told Imam Ali (AS) : Be happy,you are al-Anza' al-Bateen, No Shrik at all in you, and you are full of I'lm knowledge. ( Faraa'id al- Simtain by al- Jowaini 1/308 and a;-Manaaqib by al-Maghaazili 400 and Musnad Zayd Ibn Ali 456).
The enemies of Ahlul Bayt (AS) fabricated another meaning which completely away from the statement of the Prophet (SAWA), and claimed another meaning which suits their ill feelings against Imam Ali (AS).
Imam Ali (AS) is the Anza' الأنزع who has no Shirk at all in him, not the bold as they claimed. He was the Bateen البطين who is full of knowledge , not as they falsely claimed.
It is narrated that, before he passed away, Imam 'Ali (A) said that when they dug his grave, they would find a white rock shining with light and a shield, and that he should be buried by the shield. When the grave for Imam Ali (A) was dug, they found a white rock shining with light and a shield and on which was engraved: "This is one of the things which Nuh stored for 'Ali ibn Abi Talib."
This is related in Kitab al-Irshad (you can find the English edition online) and Bihar al-Anwar (vol. 42, p. 217).
Obviously, none of us were alive during the time of Nuh (A) to see with our own eyes whether or not this is true. However, it is possible that it happened, and there is no reason why it could not have happened.
However, it would have happened much more than 700 years before the time of Imam 'Ali (A) because Nuh lived a long time ago, although it is not certain exactly when he lived. Islamic narrations place him as being about 9 generations after Adam (A), although it should be kept in mind that people were said to have lived longer then.
Imam Ali (AS) was always with the Prophet (SAWA) and he witnessed how some persons led by Umar refused to obey the order of the Prophet (SAWA). Imam Ali (AS) knew their evil intentions when they openly opposed the Prophet (SAWA). The prophetic order to bring writing marerial was not to Imam Ali (AS) but to other companions. The Prophet (SAWA) wanted to write his last will appointing Imam Ali as his successor, and that was the reason of the refusal of Umar and his group to obey the Prophet (SAWA). If he brought it, they will simply deny it and deny the Prophet's other orders and turn against Islam to achieve their evil plans to grasp the government. They have already said about the Prophet (SAWA): the (man) is speaking nonsense إن الرجل ليهجر.
Imam Ali (AS) was always trying to protect Islam and Muslims and never let them fight or leave Islam.
Taraweeh is a Bid'ah created in the year 14 after Hijra by Umar ibn Khttab. Umar himself called it Bid'ah ( Saheeh Bukhari; Hadeeth number1871 and Saheeh Muslim ; Hadeeth number 1219 , and Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal ; Hadeeth number 22944, and a Sunan Abi Dawood; 1143, and al-Mowatta'bby Malik ibn Ana's; 243, and Sunan al-Tirmithi ; 403, Sunan al-Kubba by al-Bayhaqi ; V.7, P. 62 and Saheeh ibn Hibban , V.6, P. 186 and many other Sunni books of Hadeeth).
imam Ali (AS) was always against every Bid'ah. He had clearly refused this practice and condemned it. When he had the government in his hand, he prevented people from Taraweeh and told them that no congregational prayer in Islam but the obligatory prayers but many of them said: It is Sunnah of Umar and we won't leave a Sunnah of Umar.( Al-Kafi 8:58).
Many the battles that were fought during the expansion of the Arab-Muslim empires after the time of the Prophet (S) were the same sort of battles that any other empire or state engages in to look after its political, financial or economic interests, although it is true that, as a side effect, it contributed to the spread of Islam by establishing a ruling class who was Muslim. So, from that angle, there is nothing special about them to make them jihad fi sabil Allah.
However, if someone was fighting in defence or for other selfless reasons, this could be considered jihad, just as it would be considered jihad fi sabil Allah today if I risked my life to defend someone who is under attack.
Perhaps for that reason, there is a dua in al-Sahifah al-Sajjadiyah where Imam Zayn al-Abidin (A) prays for the soldiers on the frontier who are defending the Muslim state against enemies.
Also, even in times of jihad with the Prophet (S), whether or not fighting was counted as jihad was according to intention. For instance, some people might have gone to war for glory or financial gain, and so this is not the same thing as risking their lives or enduring battle solely for the sake of Allah.
Imam Ali (AS) never took part in any matter of the governments of Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman. He did not attend any Juma or Jama'ah with them (Al-Thahabi in Siyar A'laam al- Nubalaa' 9/284.
Valid Jihad must be led or permitted by the Prophet (SAWA) or his real successors.
This authentic Hadeeth ذِكرُ عليّ عبادة is narrated in Shia books and Sunni books. Shia books like:
1. Manla Yahdharuhul Faqeeh; Hadeeth number 2145 and 2146
2. Kashful Yaqeen 449.
3. Al-Siratul Mustaqeem, V.1, P. 209.
4. Al-Ekhtisaas as quoted in Biharul Anwaar , V. 91, P. 69.
'Sunni books narrated this Hadeeth from many companions and from 'Aisha saying the she heard Rasoolullah (SAWA) saying: Remembering (mentioning) Ali is a worship.
1. It is narrated by al-Khawarizmi in al-Manaaqib 261.
2. Ibn al-Maghazili in al-Manaaqib, Hadeeth 243.
3. Ibn 'Asaakir in Tareekh Dimishq, V. 42, P. 356.
4. Al-Wissabi in Asnal Mataalib , page 76.
Yes of course. Allah (SWT) Has in His Knowledge based in the Absolute evidence the they are the best of all His creatures in submitting to Allah. They want nothing but what Allah wants. That is why Allah ordered all in Quran to obey Allah, the messenger and Ahlul Bayt(Your divine leaders). (Sura 4, verse 59).