Imam 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي, translit. ʿAlī, 15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Prophet Muhammad (s). He is the first Imam of Shi'a Muslims and the fourth Rightly Guided Caliph of the Sunni Muslims. He was born on Rajab 13, 23 BH (March 17, 599 AD) inside the Holy Ka'ba in Mecca.
Many authentic Hadeeths stated that every persons will see during his death the Prophet (SAWA) and Ali (AS) and will get the good news of the happiness if he is sincere believer, or will see the bad result of his bad deeds if he was non believer. Al-Shaikh al-Sadouq narrated in his book al-Amaali أمالي الصدوق the statement from Ali: YA HAARA HAMDAN MAN YAMOT YARANI يا حار همدان ٬من يمت يرني O Harith of Hamdan, everyone who dies will see me.
Beside the fact that the sincere believer will see and get good news from Imam Ali (AS) on the moments of death, it is also confirmed that some very sincere and pious believers are been visited by the Infallible Imams in their grave to help them and remove hardships of grave from them. This is mentioned for pious believers who are :
- Very nice to their parents and relatives.
- Who recite Ziyarat Ashura every day.
- Who perform Night Prayer .
-Who sacrifice their wealth and comfort in the way if Allah.
- Who sacrifice their life in the love of Allah, the Prophet and Ahlul Bayt (AS).
- Who avoid sinful acts for sake of Allah.
and many other acts of pious and obedience of Allah.
There is a difference between Quran and its Tafseer. The Quran which we and all Muslims have since beginning of Islam till now is the same Quran which was written by Imam Ali (AS) and recited and remained with Imam Ali (AS) and all the Infallible Imams of Ahlul Bayt (AS).
Uthman ibn Affan took the Quranic copy written by Imam Ali (AS) and removed the Tafseer (explanation notes which was written by Imam Ali) then sent the Quranic text only to different places.
Quranic copy with the real Tafseer of all the verses is with Ahlul Bayt (AS). It will be known to Muslims after the re appearance of Al-Imam Al-Mahdi (AS) who will disclose the real meanings of all the Quranic verses.
Quranic text is exactly the same and completely intact and unchanged since the revelation of Quran on the Prophet (SAWA) till the Day of Judgement.
Some of the martyrs were like that before Karbala like Zuhair ibn al Qayn who was previously a supporter of Othman ibn Affan, but after listening and following Imam Hussain (AS), he believed fully in Ameerul Mo'mineen and Imam Hasan and Imam Husain (AS), that is why he sacrificed his life in the way of Allah under the divine leadership of Imam Husain (AS).
It is quoted by Imam Ali (AS) telling human beings to understand themselves and their life including reasons and origin of sickness and its remedies.
'Your sickness is from you: Whatever sickness you suffer from is from your own acts and deeds, so don't blame others but try to rectify yourself first.
'Your remedy is within you but you don't sense it: The remedies of all your sicknesses and sufferings are within you and you can treat them by your will power to sincerely obey Allah (SWT) which is the key to solving all the problems.
I have not seen any one who claims that Imam Ali's house water is bitter. Nevertheless, even if some claims that, it does not harm the sacred status of the place. The location of the house is near the river of Furat. Sometimes the water level in the river is high and sometimes it is low or even very low. That can be a possible reason of change in the taste of the water. It is worth mentioning that the house was never owned by Imam Ali (AS) but by his nephew (Jo'dah ibn Hubairah جعدة بن هبيرة)and Imam Ali (AS) was just a temporary tenant in that house.
Tashahhud is an obligatory part of Salah which must be performed exactly as the Prophet (SAWA) and Ahlul Bayt (AS) taught us to perform according to the authentic Prophetic Hadeeth (Perform Salah as you saw me performing Salah) (Sallo Kama Ra'aitomooni Osalli)صَلّوا كما رأيتموني أُصَلّي.
Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq (AS) taught his followers all details of Salah including Tashahhud. ( Amaali Al-Shaikh Al-Sadouq , page 498 narrating from Hammaad Bin Easa).
Tashahhud must have ALLAHUMMA SALLI 'ALA MUHAMMAD WA AALI MUHAMMAD which mentions Imam Ali (AS) and all the Infallible Ahlul Bayt (AS).
We are not allowed to add on Tashahhud more than what Ahlul Bayt (AS) taught us.
We can mention the name of Imam AALI (AS) in the form of Du'a within our Salah after Tashahhud, like saying : ALLAHUMMA SALLI 'ALA AMEERIL MO'MINEEN. Du'a is always good within our Salah and not only in Qunoot.
By this Du'a, we will be mentioning the holy name of Ameerul Mo'mineen (AS) and not adding on the Tashahhud which was been taught to us by Ahlul Bayt (AS).
Imam Ali (AS) had been ordered by the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) not to fight against them as that can initiate civil war among Muslims and that exactly was what those people and the enemies of Islam want. He controlled over himself as he said : I kept patience with all the hardships فصبرت وفي الخلق شجى وفي العين قذى
Imam Ali (AS) obeyed the orders of the Prophet (SAWA) in not fighting. He had no aim but preserving Islam for the all coming generations and not letting the evil acts of some persons cause damage to the Message which was sent to guide the whole human beings all the time.
He said: I will remain peaceful as far as Islam safe and injustice is on me and my family.
All Muslims believe that every thing is in the hands of Allah (SWT) and we seek help of the most humble servants of Allah who are the Prophet and his Holy Progeny to pray to Allah for fulfilling our wishes and needs.
Esmaeli and all Muslim sects are no exception.
Here are 12 pieces of evidence that show that Mu'awiya used to curse, and encourage the cursing of, Imam Ali b. Abi Talib.
EVIDENCE 1 - IBN HAJAR AL-’ASQALANI
ثم كان من أمر علي ما كان فنجمت طائفة أخرى حاربوه ثم أشتد الخطب فتنقصوه واتخذوا لعنه على المنابر سنة
“Then it was the matter of Ali and a group of people fought against him, then the situation got more complicated and they began to belittle him and they made cursing Ali from the pulpits, a regular habit”
Source - Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 7 page 57
EVIDENCE 2 - MUHAMMAD ABU ZAHRA
“And during the reign of Banu Umayya the dignity of Ali was attacked, he was cursed because Mu’awiya during his reign introduced the ugly bid`ah of cursing Ali.
His successors continued this tradition until the reign of Umar bin Abdul Aziz. The tradition entailed cursing the Imam of Guidance Ali at the end of the Friday Sermons, the Sahaba’s remonstrations that this was wrong was ignored, Mu’awiya and his Governors refused to desist from their actions.
Ummul’Momineen Salma (ra) wrote a letter to Mu’awiya and his respective Governors reminding them that by cursing ‘Ali they were in fact cursing Allah (swt) and his Prophet (s)”.
Source - Ta’rikh Madhahib al-Islam, Volume 1 page 35
EVIDENCE 3 - AL-DHAHABI
He has recorded the following statement of an important early Sunni scholar called Abd al-Rahman b. ‘Amr al-Awza’i (d. 157 H):
سمعت الأوزاعي يقول : ما أخذنا العطاء حتى شهدنا على علي بالنفاق وتبرأنا منه
Al-Awzai said: ‘We didn’t obtain gifts until we testified that Ali was a hypocrite and declared our disavowal towards him”.
Source - Siyar A’lam al-Nubala, Volume 7 page 130
EVIDENCE 4 - AL-TABARI - A
When Muawiya Ibn Abi Sufyan put al-Mughairah Ibn Shubah in charge of Kufah in Jumada 41 (September 2- October 30, 661), he summoned him. After praising and glorifying God, he said:
“Now then, indeed a forbearing person has been admonished in the past… The wise might do what you want without instruction. Although I have wanted to advise you about many things, I left them alone, trusting in your discernment of what pleases me, what helps my regime and what sets my subjects [raiyyah] on the right path. I would continue to advise you about a quality of yours- do not refrain from abusing Ali and criticizing him, not from asking God’s mercy upon Uthman and His forgiveness for him. Continue to shame the companions of Ali, keep at a distance, and don’t listen to them. Praise the faction of Uthman, bring them near, and listen to them.”
Source - History of Tabari, English version, events of year 51 AH, Execution of Hujr Ibn Adi, v18, pp 122-123
EVIDENCE 5 - AL-TABARI - B
“The Messenger of Muawiya then came to them (Ziyad) with orders to release six and to kill eight, telling them:
We have been ordered to let you disavow Ali and curse him. If you do so, we shall release you, and if you refuse, we shall kill you. “
Source - History of Tabari, English version, events of year 51 AH, v18, p149
EVIDENCE 6 - AHMAD B. HANBAL
“From Abdillah al-Mazini who said: ‘When Muawiya left Kufa he employed al-Mughirah ibn Shubah. ’He said: al-Mughirah hired orators to insult Ali’.”
Source - Musnad Ahmad, Volume 3 page 185
EVIDENCE 7 - HASAN B. FARHAN AL-MALIKI
والي المدينة وهو مروان بن الحكم في زمن معاوية كان يسب ويأمر بسب علي على المنابر، هذه حقيقة تاريخية ثابتة
“The governor of Madina, Marwan bin al-Hakam during the reign of Mu’awyia used to curse Ali and ordered the cursing of Ali from the pulpits; this is an affirmed historical fact.”
Source - Nahw Inqad al-Ta’rikh, Volume 3 page 22
EVIDENCE 8 - MUSLIM B. HAJJAJ
“The Governor of Medina who was one of the members of the house of Marwan called Sahl Ibn Sa’d, and ordered him to curse Ali. But Sahl refused to do so. The governor said: “If you don’t want to curse Ali, just say God curse Abu Turab (the nickname of Ali).” Sahl said: “Ali did not like any name for himself better than Abu Turab, and Ali used to become very happy when somebody would call him Abu Turab.”
Source - Sahih Muslim, Chapter of Virtues of Companions, Section of Virtues of Ali, Arabic version, v4, p1874, Tradition #38
EVIDENCE 9 - IBN TAYMIYYA
وقد كان من شيعة عثمان من يسب عليا ويجهر بذلك على المنابر
“There were from the followers of Uthman ones who used to abuse Ali openly from the Mosque pulpits”
Source - Minhaj al Sunnah, Volume 6 page 201
وأما حديث سعد لما أمره معاوية بالسب فأبى
“While the narration about Sa’d (relates to) when Mu’awyia ordered him to curse (‘Ali) but he refused”
Source - Minhaj al-Sunnah, Volume 5 page 42
EVIDENCE 10 - AL-QURTUBI
وقول معاوية لسعد بن أبي وقاص : ما منعك أن تسب أبا تراب ؛ يدل : على أن مقدم بني أمية كانوا يسبون عليا وينتقصونه
“The statement of Mu’awyia to Sa’d bin Abi Waqas “What prevents you from cursing Abu Turab” indicates that the first generation of Bani Umayya would abuse and belittle Ali.”
Source - Al-Mufhim, Volume 20 page 25
EVIDENCE 11 - IBN KATHIR
فاشترط أن يأخذ من بيت مال الكوفة خمسة آلاف ألف درهم، وأن يكون خراج دار أبجرد له، وأن لا يسب علي وهو يسمع
“He (Hasan) placed conditions of having five million from Kufa’s treasury, the income from the taxes of the city of Darabjird and not to curse Ali when he (al Hasan) could hear that”
Source - Al Bidayah wal Nihayah, Volume 8 page 17
EVIDENCE 12 - IBN ‘ABD RABBIH
“When Hassan bin Ali died, Mu’awyia performed the Hajj, and then entered into Madina where he wanted to curse Ali from Prophet’s pulpit, thus they said to him: ‘Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas is right here and he will not accept your behaviour, you should ask him first.’ Thus he sent for him and asked him about this to which he (Sa’d) said: ‘If you did it, I shall leave the mosque and never come here again.’
Thus Mu’awiya restrained himself from cursing (Ali) until Sa’d passed away, when Sa’d died, he cursed him (Ali) from the pulpit and also ordered his governors to curse him from the pulpits and they (his governors) did likewise. Then Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet (pbuh), wrote to Mu’awyia saying: ‘You are cursing Allah and his Messenger from your pulpits and that is as a result of cursing Ali bin Abi Talib and his lovers and I testify that Allah and his Messenger love him.’ However he (Mu’awyia) didn’t pay any attention to her statement”.
Source - al-’Iqd al-Farid, Volume 3 page 300
The practice of cursing and swearing at Imam Ali (a.s.) was officially introduced by Mu'awiyah.
It then became a custom for most of the Ummayad rulers, and continued for nearly 70 years. There are cases of some who refused to curse Imam Ali (a.s.), and they were severely punished.
Unfortunately, some Sunni scholars not only praise Mu'awiyah, but also refuse to accept this historical fact.
Of course, something that is worse than Mu'awiyah cursing Imam Ali (a.s.) was Mu'awiyah fighting against Imam Ali (a.s.) in the Battle of Siffin, and then usurping the khilafah from Imam Hasan (a.s.), and all the other atrocities he committed.
Here are some references from Sunni sources that mention Mu'awiyah cursing and/or commanding others to curse:
Sahih Muslim, vol. 7, p. 120, ch. merits of Ali.
Sunan Tirmidhi, vol. 5, p. 301.
Mustadrak 'ala al-Sahihayn, vol. 3, p. 109. [also see: vol. 1, p. 541].
Such things have also been mentioned in:
Musnad Ahmad, vol. 4, p. 369.
Tarikh al-Tabari, 124.
Tarikh al-Khulafa, 232.
Muruj al-Dhahab, vol. 3, p. 42.
The famous Sunni scholar al-Zamakhshari says that during the Ummayad era, seventy thousand pulpits were cursing Imam Ali (a.s.), introduced by Mu'awiyah. See; Rabi' al-Abrar.
Here is a link that has some of these narrations:
With prayers for your success.
The enemies of Imam Ali (AS) have fabricated a meaning of a saying from the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) to Imam Ali (AS) away from the real meaning. The Hadeeth is narrated in Shia and Sunni books that the Prophet (SAWA) told Imam Ali (AS) : Be happy,you are al-Anza' al-Bateen, No Shrik at all in you, and you are full of I'lm knowledge. ( Faraa'id al- Simtain by al- Jowaini 1/308 and a;-Manaaqib by al-Maghaazili 400 and Musnad Zayd Ibn Ali 456).
The enemies of Ahlul Bayt (AS) fabricated another meaning which completely away from the statement of the Prophet (SAWA), and claimed another meaning which suits their ill feelings against Imam Ali (AS).
Imam Ali (AS) is the Anza' الأنزع who has no Shirk at all in him, not the bold as they claimed. He was the Bateen البطين who is full of knowledge , not as they falsely claimed.
It is narrated that, before he passed away, Imam 'Ali (A) said that when they dug his grave, they would find a white rock shining with light and a shield, and that he should be buried by the shield. When the grave for Imam Ali (A) was dug, they found a white rock shining with light and a shield and on which was engraved: "This is one of the things which Nuh stored for 'Ali ibn Abi Talib."
This is related in Kitab al-Irshad (you can find the English edition online) and Bihar al-Anwar (vol. 42, p. 217).
Obviously, none of us were alive during the time of Nuh (A) to see with our own eyes whether or not this is true. However, it is possible that it happened, and there is no reason why it could not have happened.
However, it would have happened much more than 700 years before the time of Imam 'Ali (A) because Nuh lived a long time ago, although it is not certain exactly when he lived. Islamic narrations place him as being about 9 generations after Adam (A), although it should be kept in mind that people were said to have lived longer then.