Al-Aḥzāb (الأحزاب, "The Clans, The Coalition, The Combined Forces") is the 33rd chapter (sūrah) of the Qur'an with 73 verses (āyāt). The sūrah takes its name from the mention of the parties (al-aḥzāb), or confederates (an alliance among the Quraysh and other tribes), who fought the Muslims at the Battle of the Trench (5/627), also known as the Battle of the Parties and as the Siege of Madinah.
The assumption that the physical world must be lifeless and non-sentient arises is somewhat modern and became prominent along with the rise of a European secular worldview. Peoples throughout history have held (and continue to hold) a variety of views of whether or not there is some inherent intelligence or sentience in nature.
Anyway, a literal reading of the verse suggests that the mountains do indeed have some level of awareness or comprehension, such that they were able to understand what it would mean to be offered the "trust" (amanah), and reply.
Other interpretations of this verse include:
* The verse is metaphorical. That is, it means to say, if the mountains were able to speak and understand, this is what they would say - to emphasize the enormity of the amanah.
* The verse is referring to the inhabitants of the earth and mountains, such as people, earth, jinn, and angels. This view exists but is somewhat odd since humans took on the amanah.
Personally I favour the literal understanding. It is in line with the Qur'anic verse that says that everything glorifies Allah but we do not understand it. So just we cannot understand the mountains does not mean they have no ability to communicate with Allah. However others may prefer other views.
Even if one does not accept this literal meaning, it should be noted that on the Day of Resurrection, it is said that the earth will be able to speak and bear witness to what happened upon it, so the natural world will have awareness and the ability to speak then.
In Quranic verses, plural was sometimes used for one person like in the Verse of Mobahala ( Sura Aal Imran; verse 61) ( Let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, and ourselves and yourselves) The Prophet (SAWA) called Fatima only for his women and called Ali only for ourselves.
Authentic evidence supports that Fatima was the only real daughter of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) while had three fostered daughters who were orphaned daughters of Hala Bint Khowailid sister of Lady Khadija (AS).
Justice of the Prophet (SAWA) will never allow discrimination in dealing with the three fostered daughters wihle all the focus of the Prophet was on Fatima.
The meaning of this verse is not accurately translated by by many of non Arabic translators. Amaanah in Arabic is not always Trust but it has other meanings as well including The Responsibility, The obligatory, The Liability etc.
The meaning of Amaanah in this verse has been mentioned in many Hadeeths from Ahlul Bayt (AS) as The responsibility to follow the orders of Allah and His Messenger and his successors 'Ahlul Bayt' which is result of having perfect 'Aql (intellect) which is only with the human beings. That is why the heavens and the earth and the mountains could not carry it because they are unable to carry it and they were apprehensive of it. They did not refuse it in a sinful refusal like the refusal of Satan to prostrate to Adam, but they were unable to carry because they did not have the intellect to fulfill its responsibilities.
'Allamah Tabataba'i mentions the view in this link. It is not the dominant view of Shi'i scholars today, but I think it makes sense.
God knows best
The Verse 33 - 33 in Sura Al Ahzaab mentioned many things about the wives of the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him and His Holy Progeny) but the specific part of the purification has been explained by the Prophet himself when he clearly said that: These are my Progeny who are been purified. My purified Progeny are Ali (a.s.), Fatima (s.a.), Hasan (a.s.) and Husain (a.s.). No one knows the meaning of Quranic verses more than the Prophet, because the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him and His Holy Progeny) is been asked by Allah and he is the responsible of explaining the meaning of Quranic Verses to the Ummah, that is why he explained exactly who are meant in the Verse 33 – 33 and he did not allow anyone from his wives to join when he put the Kisa (the Cloth) on Ali (a.s.), Fathema (s.a.), Hasan (a.s.) and Husain (a.s.) Only with not allowing any of his wives even Umme Salama who was very pious wife but she was not allowed to join them. This is a very clear evidence that the Verse does not talk about the wives but only the purified Progeny of Ahlulbayt who are Ali (a.s.), Fathema (s.a.), Hasan (a.s.) and Husain (a.s.).