Medina, also transliterated as Madīnah, is the capital of the Al-Madinah Region in Saudi Arabia. At the city's heart is al-Masjid an-Nabawi ('The Prophet's Mosque'), which is the burial place of the Prophet Muhammad. Medina is one of the two holiest cities in Islam, the other being Mecca.
Mecca, Medina, and Karbala are all considered holy sites in Shi'i narrations and tradition.
It is not really useful to try to rank them. Mostly people ask this for sectarian reasons, i.e. to try to show whether or not Shi'is have the "correct" belief for a Muslim, or to judge whether individual Shi'is have the "correct" belief.
Each of these sites has its own role in the history of Islam and also has its own spiritual character.
Furthermore, individual Shi'is vary in their personal views or personal perceptions of spiritual matters, such as their experience of a place.
However, Mecca is central because it is the place for the required hajj, the direction of prayer, the homeland of the Prophet where he began his mission, and the sacred haram which is visited by the angels and sanctified in the Qur'an. It is also the birthplace of Imam 'Ali and is said to be the place where Adam and Eve first came to earth.
Medina is also important as the site of the first Muslim community, the site of the final resting place of the Prophet, and the residence of some of the Imams.
According to Shi'i law, it is necessary (wajib) to perform pilgrimage to Mecca, and according to Shi'i narrations, one should also visit the Prophet's final resting place in Medina. It is considered highly recommended but not shari'ah-wajib to visit Karbala. So this gives some ranking.
It is also narrated from Imam al-Sadiq that every evening, seventy thousand angels descend, circle the Ka'bah, then go to visit the graves of Imam 'Ali and Imam Husayn, and then return to the heavens. So this also gives some idea of ranking.
Karbala is also emphasized in the Shi'i tradition, both for its spiritual merits, and also because the martyrdom of Imam Husayn is seen as central to the survival of Islam.
There are a handful of narrations in which, on a creational or supra-worldly level, Karbala is treated as higher than Mecca. However, there are also narrations from the Shi'i Imams that say things like "Allah has preferred Mecca over all other cities" and "one prayer in the Prophet's Mosque [in Medina] is equal to a thousand prayers prayed elsewhere."
So, from this, perhaps we can understand that the intent in these narrations is not to rank sacred sites, but just to indicate that certain places have a special sanctity.
Today, some Shi'is individually may say that, for them, visiting Karbala was a more spiritual experience than performing the hajj. This is likely due to the regrettable materialism that has overtaken Mecca (the clock tower, McDonald's, luxury hotels and meals for those who can afford it, etc), the demolition or alteration of sacred sites (such as the jamarat or Jannat al-Baqi'), mismanagement, the crowds, and the hostility towards Shi'is in today's Saudi, including from the minbar and by the religious police.
In any case, Shi'is worldwide are dedicated to performing the hajj, visiting Medina, and also visting Karbala.
Generally, this understanding is taken from what has been narrated about the revelation of a surah or ayat.
However, sometimes there are contextual clues. For instance, if a verse discusses a historical event that happened after the hijrah, such as the Battle of Badr, it is understood that it was revealed in Medina.
Also, the style and content of Meccan verses are somewhat different from the style and content of Medinan verses. The Meccan verses tend to be shorter and focus more on the existence of God, the afterlife, and important ethical points, whereas the Medinan verses tend to be longer and also discuss matters such as legislation. This isn't an absolute rule but also lends some evidence.
It is Not permissible at all. You must pray and fast according to the timing of the place where you live. Allah (SWT) ordered in Quran all Muslims to abide to the time of start of fasting which is Fajr, and end of fasting as the start of the night .(Sura 2, Verse 187).
Those who claim following different timings are deviating away from the clear orders of Quran and the authentic orders of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA).
Al-Hakam ibn al-Aass was from Bani Ummaiyah. He was the uncle of Uthman ibn Affan. He was an open enemy against the Prophet (Peace be upon Him and His holy Progeny). His son Marwan Ibn al-Hakam was also expelled from Madina by Prophet (Peace be upon Him and His holy Progeny) for the same reason. Ayesha openly told Marwan that I bear witness that the Prophet cursed you and your father. When Uthman ibn Affan became the ruler over Madina after Umar, he brought Marwan ibn al-Hakam and gave him charge in his government and also he brought his father al-Hakam ibn al-aaass to Madina against the orders of Prophet (Peace be upon Him and His holy Progeny). Authentic Hadeeths in Sunni and Shia Books that the Prophet cursed Marwan and his father. The Prophet (SAWA) cursed al-Hakam ibn al-Aass and all the children from him. In the well known Sunni book (Al-Istiyaab Page 359 and 360 ) that when the Prophet saw Marwan ibn al-Hakam, said “Al-Wazagh ibnul Wazagh””Al Mal’aoon ibnul Mal’aoon””The Lizard Son of the Lizard” “The Cursed Son of The Cursed”.
Ameerul Momeneen (A.S.) said about Marwan that his hand is a Jewish hand. Mustadrak as-Saheehayn by Al-Hakim al-Nisaburi Volume-4 Page-479. Marwan Ibn al-Hakam was open enemy against Ahlulbayt upto the extend that when the news of the killing of Imam Hussain reached Madina he went on the Pulpit and faced the Prophet’s Shrine and said “This is against what you did against us in Badr . (Yaumun Ka Yaum Badr) as you killed us in Badr we have killed your Grandson Husain, this is in Murooj al-Thahab by Al-Mas’oodi.
as salam alaikum
There were two tribes of Arabs that welcomed the Muhajirun to Madina: they were the Aws and the Khazraj. Originally they were both Yemeni tribes from the line of Kahlan Ibn Saba' Ibn Yashjub Ibn Ya'rub Ibn Qahtan.
With prayers for your success.
Al-Saheeh Min Seerat Al-Nabi Al-'Adham الصحيح من سيرة النبي الأعظم by Sayyed Jafar Murtadha al-'Aamili
The hypocrites were in many places including Madina. The hypocrites were from different tribes and places including Makkah and Madina. Hypocrites used to join hands with enemies of Islam including Jewish enemies and Mushriks of Quraish and others.
The cause of the rift was the betrayal of Jewish leaders of that time and mischief they played against the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) and the Muslims. They wanted to join the enemies of Islam instead of protecting Madina. They had secret ties with the enemies of Islam and Muslims to destroy the Muslim state in Madina.
There were certainly Jewish communities present in Medina at the time the muhajirun migrated there from Makkah.
At the beginning of the seventh century A.D., there were three Jewish tribes living in Medina (Yathrib). They were Banu Qainuka'a, Banu Nadhir and Banu Qurayza. All three tribes were rich and powerful, and also, they were more civilized than the Arabs. Whereas the Arabs were all farmers, the Jews were the entrepreneurs of industry, business and commerce in Arabia, and they controlled the economic life of Medina (Yathrib). The two Arab tribes – Aus and Khazraj – were debt-ridden to the Jews perennially.
Besides Medina, the strong centers of the Jews in Hijaz were Khyber, Fadak and Wadi-ul-Qura. The lands in these valleys were the most fertile in all Arabia, and their Jewish cultivators were the best farmers in the country.
The migration of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, from Makkah to Medina (then Yathrib), brought him into contact with the Jews for the first time. At the beginning they were friendly to him. He granted them the famous Charter of Medina, and they acknowledged him the ruler of their city, and agreed to abide by his decisions in all disputes. They also agreed to defend the city in the event of an invasion by an enemy.
But, unfortunately, this friendship did not last long.