Mujtahid refers to a jurist who performs independent reasoning in finding a solution to a legal question.
The linguistic meaning of it is (Peace be upon him) which is in fact used for every Muslim when you say to him : Salamun Alaykum.(Peace be upon you).
But as a term and common understanding , we have to be careful in using it to avoid mixing between the Infallible and others.
When our jurists produce religious rulings, they have done so based on the religious sources and principles. This is according to their best efforts. It could be that a jurists’s ruling in reality isn’t correct, however the jurist exhausts his upmost efforts to produce something that they think is closest to the sources.
Therefore, even if a ruling wasn’t correct in reality, someone wouldn’t be accountable as he has only followed this jurist’s ruling while considering him to be a qualified expert in Islamic jurisprudence.
When it comes to one’s own theological beliefs such as proving God, they must establish and prove this for themselves and can’t just say: “A scholar told me to believe in God so I do so”.
May Allah grant you success
You need to start very early in teaching him the basic Islamic knowledge, in a way which makes him like this knowledge and continue gaining it in the Hawza ( Islamic seminary).
Becoming a high level Mujahid needs decades of continuous hard work in seeking Islamic knowledge along with sincerity and humbleness which are essential in enlightening the heart.
as salam alaikum
there are many contradictory reports attributed to the Imams of Ahl al-Bayt, peace be upon them. Some, but not all, reasons for that are:
1) Some of the reports are weak while others are authentic.
2) Some Imams may have said or given a particular rules for a specific reason or in a particular context while other Imams may have said or given a different ruling due to some circumstantial changes in the situation they were in.
One of the tasks of the Alim or the Mujtahid is to distinguish between true and false reports or valid and invalid knowledge.
Differences of opinion in the details of jurisprudence are natural and each one of us is called to do his best to reach valid conclusive statements. As a matter of precaution the layman is called to follow the most learned of the scholars. Some jurists have disagreed regarding the necessity of the A'lamiyyah and regard ijtihad and full competence (with all its related conditions) as sufficient criterion to be followed.
There is no blame on anyone if two people follow two different qualified Mujtahids with different rulings as each one of them exerted outmost effort to deduce the details of the practical law. This is part of Allah's plan and He doesn't act out of wisdom.
What has been established by the Qur'an and the Sunnah Mutawatirah should not be differed upon. As far as the details, the servant should always look for truth but also be humble enough to admit that "Allah and His Prophet know best" and perhaps to understand that such humility is more important to Allah than a variation in legal opinions.
With prayers for your success.
No, they do not need to repeat them.
The holy Qur'an says that believers should act upon knowledge: "And do not pursue that which you have no knowledge" (17:36). The idea of acting according to guesses and conjectures have been clearly rejected: "And they have thereof no knowledge. They follow not except conjectures, and indeed conjectures avail not against the truth at all" (53:28). Consequently, the one who is not able and is not qualified to deduce religious rulings should follow an expert and a mujtahid to learn the necessary details of Islamic law that are relevant to his life and situation. Not doing so would imply to follow conjectures of his own self or non-qualified people and this is condemned by the Qur'an. It is also possible to act according to precaution which implies to take the most precautionary steps and opinions but this requires a considerable amount of knowledge often difficult to attain for the ordinary person; it is therefore advisable for those who are not experts in religious sciences to follow a fully-qualified mujtahid whose knowledge has been fully established.
With prayers for your success.
It is haram for a person who has reached the level of ijtihad to do taqlid for another mujtahid. This applies equally to men as well as women.
However, when the question of a marja` comes (i.e., a mujtahid who is followed by others), then one of the conditions is that the marja` must be a male. For example, the late Ayatullah al-Khu`i, says: "The conditions [necessary] in marja`i 't-taqlid...", before listing the well-known conditions ---like sanity, being baligh, iman, justice and being a male (Minhaju 's-Salihiyn, vol. 1, p. 7).
In short, a woman can reach the level of ijtihad and follow her own views but she cannot become a marja`.