A turbah (Arabic: تربة; Persian: مهر mohr) is a small piece of soil or clay, often a clay tablet, used during salat (Islamic daily prayers) to symbolize earth. The use of a turbah is compulsory in most Shi'a schools of Islam and many Hadith mention the benefits of prostration (Sajda) upon the soil of the earth or an alternative material. The most favoured soil is that of Karbala, the site of the death of Husayn ibn Ali; however, soil from anywhere may be used.
You do not necessarily need to do sajdah on a 'turbah'. It can be anything natural, as long as it is non-edible, and is not worn.
You can use a rock, marble, wood, or a leaf, etc.
You can use paper, only if you are certain that it is natural as well.
And Allah knows best.
No Kaffara and no responsibility on a child in the age of three or four. Estighfaar is always good.
We are following the Prophet Muhammad who never did Sajda on carpet and always performed Sajda on the earth or plants which are not for wearing nor for eating. All Muslim scholars have the Prophetic Hadeeth: جُعِلت لي الارض مسجدا وطَهورا "The earth was ordained for me as a place of prostration and a material of purification" Saheeh al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Salah, Hadeeth number 429.
The Prophet (SAWA) used to prostrate either on the earth or on piece of clay or mat called Khumrah ( Saheeh al-Bukhari , Kitab al-Salah, Hadeeth number 368) which is just like the Sajdagah which we, Shia Muslims use.
Those who do Sajda on the carpet are doing something which was never done by the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) according to their own books of Hadeeth. They should ask themselves; why?
Ibn Taymiyyah, the godfather of Wahhabism stated that prostrating on carpet is Bid'ah.(Majmoo' al-Fataawa,Ibn Taymiyyah, Volume 22).
The Prophet (s) used to pray on earth and is also reported to have shown reverence towards the soil of Karbala in his lifetime with the foreknowledge of what would happen upon it.
So although it is not compulsory for the Shia to pray on a turba made from the soil of Karbala, it is considered meritorious to do so.
You can read more details with full references here:
Thank you for your question. There is no problem in doing that at all.
May you always be successful.
Yes it is allowed. We are prostrating to Allah putting our forehead on the ground or Turbah. We are Not prostrating to the ground or to the Turbah. Those who prostrate on the carpet, are they worshipping the carpet?? Obviously no. Same with prostrating on the Turbah or Mohr or etc.
Names graved on the Turbah does not mean that we are prostrating to the Imams. We prostrate to Allah only.
It is permissible to prostrate on a clay on which something is written, though it is much better to prostrate on plain clay ( Torbah) or Mohr or Sajdagah.
According to Shia jurisprudence, Sajda should be performed on earth, and on those things which are not edible nor worn, and on things which grow from earth (e.g. wood and leaves of trees). The Holy Prophet (pbuh) also performed Sajda on soil and other things which are considered to be a part of earth such as sand, clay, stone, plants (wood) etc. not on carpet, rug, leather and plastic materials. The Turbah of Imam Hussein (a.s.) on which Sajda is valid and which has superiority over other soils and things, is one of the manifestations of earth (or soil). Hence, Sajda is allowed on it.
So in this case, you will prostrate on the epoxy, not the Turbah and the prostration on that, even if it's transparent and thin does not suffice.
No because epoxy would be a barrier between you and the thing which is permissible to do sajdah on.
If there is a layer that has formed on the turbah which is a barrier that stops the forehead from reaching the clay, then it must be cleaned or scraped away first
Thank you for your question. As long as the darkness is not due to any barrier between the turbah and the forehead you can prostrate on it. Usually, the darkness is due to water or swear and so the darkness is just discolouration of the clay rather than a barrier.
May you always be successful