Theology of Twelver Shias contains five principles of the Shia Islam religion known as Uṣūl ad-Dīn (Arabic: أصول الدين عند الشيعة). Usul al-dín is an Arabic Islamic term which literally translates as 'foundation of the faith', roughly interpretable as 'theology'.
Thank you for your question. Although a person should strive to reach personal satisfaction in the truth of the usul al-din, be that through logical thinking or through religious experience, having not passed through that process does not make a person a kafir. As soon as a person utters the shahadatayn they are a Muslim and it is only through renouncing their faith that they fall into kufr. Rather, a deep comprehension of these principles is something that takes time, and a person is a Muslim throughout that journey.
May you always be successful.
Proving the basics of faith which are called in Arabic, Usul al-Deen
is very simple for every human being who uses his senses.
Main Facts of this existence are:
1. Tawheed which means that the existence came because it was created and the Creator is the most powerful and the most
knowledgeable and the most merciful and this is what we believe in it
as the main fact that the Creator who created the universe is One
because we see the whole universe from the smallest nucleus to the
biggest galaxy made of the same system - the movement in all the
universe is anti-clockwise. The whole universe, in every part of it,
gives unanimous evidence that the creator of the whole universe is
If there was another creator apart from Allah SWT, we should have seen
any message from him as Ameerul Mo’menneen Ali (AS) said to his son :
“O son, if your Lord had a partner, you should have received any
message from that partner.
There are unlimited evidences about Tawheed that the Creator is one
but we mention very brief and very simple evidence, otherwise everyone
in his own thinking can reach to the fact that the whole universe was
created either by itself which is impossible or by a creator which is
the fact and the creator is one, Allah SWT.
2. The evidence of Nubowwat (Prophethood) is also very clear in the mind
of sensible persons that the Creator who created us knows our abilities and our limited knowledge and knows that we need to be guided by divine leaders who have full knowledge from Him, and the human being cannot run his life without guidance
from Allah SWT and Allah SWT guided us in two ways - one way is
through our intellect which is the inner evidence and the second which
is the outer guidance which came from Allah SWT to all human beings
through the messengers, prophets and their divine successors.
3. The faith in the justice of Allah SWT, Adl, is simply clear for
sensible persons because no one commits injustice but either because
of ignorance or because of need. Those who are ignorant or those who
feel need try to do injustices but Allah SWT is away from these
reasons and Allah SWT is the absolute needless and the All-knowing. It is out
of question in fact, to think that Allah SWT needs to do injustice on
4. The faith in the Day of Judgement (Qiyamat) is also part of our basic
faith, Usul al-Deen because we as human beings believe that every good
or bad must have a result and the Day of Judgement is the final day in
which everyone will meet the result of his deeds. No human being can
believe that the Most Merciful Creator Allah SWT who is the Most Just
leaves everyone doing whatever they do without Day of Judgement. Day
of Judgement is part and parcel of the justice and mercy of Allah SWT.
5. We also believe in the Divine leadership after the Holy Prophet (SAWA)
i.e.Imamate, because Allah SWt who knows the need of all human beings
to be guided by the prophets, He sent all the prophets to guide the
human beings and when He sent the last and greatest and final Prophet
Muhammad (SAWA) He ordered him to inform the Muslims in all the times
that his successors wil be Ameerul Mo’mineen Ali (AS) who is the first of twelve infallible Imams who will always guide the people to the right part of Allah SWT and the Holy Prophet
Thank you for your question. The five usul of din (tawhid, adalat, nubuwat, imamat, qiyamat) were devised my twelver theologians in order to distinguish twelver Shiism from other sects within Islam, thereby giving it an identity. These are the main concepts from a theological point of view, but religion comprises more than these 5 principles. These principles are formulated from the scriptural sources and the principles of adalat and imamat are specifically in response to other sects and theological positions that developed within the Islamic world.
The first is the unity of God. That He is unique and there is none like Him. The existence of God is proved in a variety of ways, but His uniqueness is a presupposition, even though the concept is coherent when compared to other views which lead to incoherencies. He is unique because He is unlimited and is not constructed of parts. If any other god is supposed to exist other than Him, He would neither be unique or simple (not constructed of parts) as there would be another being that would limit Him, or would be a part of Him. This position is derived from the scriptural sources that stress the uniqueness of God.
The second principle is that He is Just. His Justice is stressed as the Ashari school of theology stressed God's Power over His Justice. The Imami theologians held that it was impossible for God to punish his Prophet (saw) for example, as that would be against His Justice, but the Ashari's maintained that God could do whatever He wished and that Justice was what God said it was, not humans conceived.
Prophethood is proved through the grace of God in desiring that His creatures be guided, as well as the proofs which they brought to prove their prophethood, which could not be repeated without divine help. The Qur'an is the greatest living proof of prophethood.
Imamate is again a principle which separates Shiis from other schools of thought and for the twelver school imamate continues from prophethood and is for the same reasons, such as God's desire to guide His creatures. Imamate is necessary to safeguard and interpret the final message in every time.
The Day of Judgement is what brings all of the test of the life of this world into perspective. By it the consequences of our actions remain hidden and test has meaning. The soul is everlasting and so a hereafter must exist as a place where the soul rests after death.
May you always be successful.