Abdallah ibn Abi Quhafah (عبد الله بن أبي قحافة; c. 573 CE – 23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (أبو بكر), was a companion and—through his daughter Aisha—a father-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad.
as salam alaikum
mere single reports from Musnad Ahmad cannot be validated according to Shia view. Also, according to the most accurate opinion any single report (khabar al-wahid) with no external evidences cannot be used to establish doctrinal principles or historical facts.
With prayers for your success.
Sunni books mentioned that Imam Ali (AS) refused to give allegiance to Abu Bakr and Abu Bakr sent Umar with group of people to force Imam Ali on giving allegiance or burn his house on him and Fatima and Hasan and Husain.
(Tareekh Tabari (2: 443).
Mussannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah, (8:572)
Ansaab Al-Ashraaf by Balathori (1:586).
Al-Soyooti inMusnad Fatima , Page 36.
Ibn Qutaibah in Al-Imamah wal Siyasah (1:19) and (1:30).
Ibn Abd rabbih in Al-'iqd al-Fareed (1:78).
Ibn Abd al-Barr in Al-Estee'aab (3:975).
And many other Sunni books.
Those who claim that Imam Ali (AS)has given allegiance to Abu Bakr after six months need to prove their claim. There is no authentic narration but a narration from Aiysha Bint Abi Bakr claiming that. Everyone knows the stand of Aiysha against Imam Ali (AS).
We have in the books that after the demise of Lady Fatimah (AS), the Saqeefa people threatened to kill Imam Ali if he does not give allegiance and took from him an allegiance under threat. Obviously, even if this narration was right, such allegiance is invalid according to Islam because it was under threatening to kill him.
Imam Ali (AS) did not even pray with them in the Masjid nether Jumm'ah nor Jama'ah. (Siyar A'laam Al-Nubalaa' By Al-Dhahabi (9:284).
Simple search in Sunni books of Hadeeth leads to the fact that all the three whom you named ran away from the Jihad.
1. Abu Bakr:
Al-Haakim Al-Nisaboori who is one of the well known Sunni scholars narrated in his famous book Al-Mustadrak Alal Saheehayn, Volume 3, Page 37 that Abu Bakr ran away.
In Saheeh Bukhari and Dalaa'l Al-Sidq , V. 1, P.362 and Noor Al-Absaar by Shiblanji, P. 87, you find that Umar ran away.
Ibn Katheer (student of Ibn Yatmiyyah) mentioned in his books Al-Bidayah Wal Nihayah V.4, P. 28 that Uthman ran away.
Many other Muslims have also run away from the battles due to weakness in the faith. Only the firm and strong in faith stood fast and never ran away.
Exposing the hypocrites was declared in Quran by their deeds but not by their names. Same was done by the Prophet (SAWA) who did not expose their names.
The Prophet (SAWA) has clearly stated that many of his companions will change and turn back from right path after him then will be sent to hellfire. (Saheeh Bukhari, Hadeeth number 4259
and Saheeh Bukhari, Hadeeth number 6098,
and Saheeh Bukhari , Hadeeth number 6099,
and Saheeh Bukhari, Hadeeth number 6026,
and Saheeh Bukhari, Hadeeth number 6528.
Sayid Husain Jafri, in his Origins and Development of Early Shi'a Islam, highlights some of the key narrations about Abu Bakr that are mentioned frequently in Sunni circles. Jafri points out that these particular narrations all go back to 'A'isha, who was obviously supporting her father. I can recommend that you get Jafri's book, as he does some good hadith analysis.
There are many narrations which were fabricated for political reasons. We care only for the authentic narrations which came through authentic chain of narrators from the Prophet (SAWA). You may refer to some Sunni books of 'Elm al-Hadeeth ( knowledge of Hadeeth) to see hundreds of narrations which were fabricated in praise of well known rulers.
There are many books written on this important subject but not all of them are translated to English. There is a book available on line which was published by Amazon: THE TRAGEDY OF FATIMA DAUGHTER OF THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD, by Allama Sayyid Murtada Al-Amili, translated by Yasin Al-Jibouri.
Also it might be useful for you to see this link
It is important to remember that people have always had choices. That is the reason why we hold those accountable who committed misdeeds, because they chose to do so. They were not born to play the part of villains.
It is not as if God had determined that Fadak must be usurped and that someone must be created who will do so.
It is also not the case that God had determined that a wife of the Prophet (s) must fight Imam 'Ali (a) and so she was put out there in the world of creation to fulfil that role.
Think of it this way. It was entirely possible for the first caliph and his daughter not to commit the misdeeds that they did. So why ought they have been punished before they could even be tested with that choice?
Did not Abu Bakr have another child, and Ayesha a brother, who was the most devoted Shi'a of Imam 'Ali (a) and fought against his own sister in defence of Imam 'Ali?
He was not predestined to be the good person in a pre-planned drama, like some kind of an angelic robot. He also made choices in his life. And so we remember him with affection and praise.
I believe that the nature of knowledge given by God to the Prophet (s) and the Imams (a) must be understood with the above in mind.
Allah, The Glorious, tests the followers of the prophets to distinguish between the sincere from the insincere. Allah(SWT) made the Prophet Noah (AS) marry a woman who turned to be disobedient then from the people of hellfire, same was the wife of Prophet Lut (AS). Allah (SWT) aims to examine the faith of people who claim being followers of the Prophet (SAWA) as we read in Quran:
1. (Allah will not leave the believers in the state in which you are now until He distinguish the bad from the good). Sura Aal Imran, verse 179.
2. (In order that Allah may distinguish the bad persons from the good persons ) Sura Al-Anfaal, verse 37.
Having a disobedient wife among good wives and insincere companion among sincere companions makes the bad persons follow the bad, while sincere persons keep on following the Prophet (SAWA) and his successors.
We do not have any authentic evidence neither in our books nor in Sunni books that Abu Bakr accompanied the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) in his migration from Makkah to Madina. On the contrary, we have in authentic Sunni books that Abu Bakr was not with the Prophet during that journey as you can see in Al-Bidayah Wal Nihayah by Ibn Katheer narrating from Ibn Jareer al-Tabari. (Al-Bidayah Wal Nihayah , Vol 3, Page 219) and also Al-Seerah al-Nabawiyyah by Ibn Katheer , V. 2 , Page 236).
The person who was accompanying the Prophet (SAWA) was a travel guide who knows the roads of the desert between Makkah and Madina by the name of Abdullah Ibn Orayqit Ibn Bakr عبد الله بن أريقط بن بكر (Mukhtasar Tareekh Dimashq by Ibn Asaakir , V. 13, P. 35).
Some people changed the name from Ibn Bakr to Abu Bakr.
The narration that Abu Bakr was with the Prophet in the cave of Thawr and the spider covered the cave's entrance is fabricated and it has got similar story in the Jewish stories as it as been admitted by leading Sunni scholars. (Tafseer al-Qurtubi, V. 13, P. 346).
In the well known book (Saheeh al-Bukhari (1:170) narrating from Ibn Umar that Abu Bakr and Umar and other well known persons migrated to Madina before the Prophet and used to pray in Masjid Qiba behind Saalim Mawla Abi Huthaifah. Also, there is in Saheeh al-Bukhari 8:115), a narration from Abdullah Ibn Umar that Saalim Mawla Abi Huthaifa used to lead in prayers Muslims including Abu Bakr, Umar, Abu Salamah, Zaidand Aamir Ibn Rabee'ah. That was before the arrival of the Prophet to Madina.
Al-Haakim Al-Neesaboori who is a leading Sunni scholar in Hadeeth has narrated that the Prophet migrated from makkah alone and Abu Bakr was not with him (Al-Mustadrak Alal Saheehayn, 3:133).
There is book written on this subject by Shaikh Najaah al-Taa'ee.
This book goes into the detail of what the other respected scholars have indicated in their responses.
The narrations claiming that Abu Bakr led the congregational prayers
during the illness of the Holy Prophet (SAWA) is a fabricated
narration. The narrators of it are well-known enemies of Ameerul
Mo’meneen (AS) and even in Sunni books of Ahadith and ‘Elm-al-Rijaal
they are being criticized by lying. The narrations come mainly from
Ayesha bint Abu Bakr, who led a big army (Al-Jamal battle) to fight and to kill Ameerul Mo’meneen (AS). Other narrators like ‘Orwah ibn al Zubair and his son
Hisham ibn ‘Orwah are well-known enemies of Ameerul Mo’meneen (AS).
Among the narrators is ibn Shihab al Zohri, the well-known servant of
the tyrant rulers of bani Omayyah and Abu Burdah who was appointed by
Muwaiyah and he was among those who gave false witness to kill the pious
companion Hijr bin Adai who was killed by Muwaiyah, So, going through
the narrators it is very clear that all them had a negative stand
against Ahlul Bayt (AS).
Besides the unauthentic narrators, the context of the
narrations itself is doubtful. If the Holy Prophet (SAWA) had really
asked Abu Bakr to lead the prayers in the Masjid, then why should he
go with his critical health supported by Al Fazl ibn Abbas and Ameerul
Mo’meneen (AS) to the Masjid and drag Abu Bakr back,as it is mentioned
in the authentic Sunni books. In fact the Holy Prophet (SAWA) never
sent Abu Bakr but he came to know that Ayesha sent a message to her
father that the Holy Prophet (SAWA) is unable to lead the prayers so
go and lead the prayers in the Masjid. When the Holy Prophet (SAWA)
came to know, he was so upset and he tolerated with difficulty walking
with support of 2 people to the Masjid and lead the prayers himself after dragging back Abu Bakr who was sent by his daughter Ayesha with out the permission of he Prophet (SAWA) and against his orders as he wanted Ali (AS) to lead the prayers.
Thank you for your question. It is not agreed upon that he did lead a congregational prayer on behalf of the Prophet (saw) the days before his (saw) death. In fact there are instances where Abu Bakr was about to lead prayer and the Prophet (saw) despite his illness and the weak state of his (saw) body got up to lead the prayer.
For the sake of argument that he did lead a prayer, that was not put forward by Abu Bakr himself as a reason to be the successor of the Prophet (saw). The event of saqifa shows that those ghat believe in the validity of the Caliphate of Abu Bakr do so on the basis that the Prophet (saw) did appoint a successor.
May you always be successful