Thank you for your question. One of the conditions for a prayer leader according to the School of Ahl al-Bayt (as) is that they are baligh. If they are not baligh, that prayer cannot be lead by them and so if someone participated in that prayer they will need to repeat it.
May you always be successful
congregational prayers are much more better than praying alone. The reward of praying in congregation is many folds more which can be hundreds or thousands of times.
Congregational prayer has conditions including the conditions of the Imam of Jama'at. Woman can lead women only in prayers and she should stand in the first row with other women and not to stand ahead of them.
The main requirements for the Imam of Jama'ah are:
1. He be well versed in the rulings of fiqh and prayer in particular.
2. A man of piety and righteousness, with inner taqwa, high moral standards, and 'adalah, which means he does not commit regular sin.
3. His pronunciation and recitation is accurate.
4. Other things mentioned in the fiqh books.
If there are numerous people who broadly have these main requirements, then the person who is more learnt, or with more taqwa, or better recitation, is presented as the Imam Jama'ah.
And Allah knows best.
According to the verdict of many high caliber scholars, joining the Jum'a Prayer is enough even if you are late and could not listen to the both Khutba of Jum'a.
You do not need to perform Dhuhr.
It is recommended to pray with Muslims from any sect. As it is a Friday prayer, you need to pray your own Dhuhr prayer before or after it.
Praying with our Muslim brothers from any sect is highly recommended.
If it would be within a reasonable range of time after the entering of the prayer time, then yes you can wait, and you will receive the reward of prayer on time, and also jama'ah prayer.
However, if there will be an extensive delay, then it is better that you pray on time, and receive its abundant reward.
And Allah knows best.
It is permissible to perform congregational Prayers keeping the social distancing required by health experts. That distancing will not invalidate the prayer nor the congregation Jama'ah.
This question of the permissible distance in congregational prayers is not new as many think. It has been mentioned in our books before about one thousand years. Shaikh Al-Tousi who established the Hawza of Najaf Ashraf before about one thousand years ago and passed away in 460 Hijri, has mentioned it in his book (Al-Mabsoot). Al-Muhaqqiq Al-Hilli (676 \Hijri) and Yahya ibn Sa'eed (689 Hijri) who were among the prominent Shia Ulama did mention it. The verdict of all these three prominent Ulama and many other Ulama that it is permissible to perform congregational prayer with distance between the individuals as far as the shape of the group is a congregation الهيئة العرفية. This in principle. The medical and health reason based on the the obligation on every Muslim to save himself and other from infection, add another reason to our Maraaji' of Taqleed to act upon the verdict of Shaikh al-Tousi and other old Ulama allowing the distance in congregational prayers.
Yes, some maraja have now come out and are saying that congregational prayers may be held with a certain measurement of distancing between people in the rows.
May Allah grant you success
as salam alaikum
the term "Imam" can be used also for the one who is leading the congregational prayer. In fact he is called "Imam al-Jama'ah".
With prayers for your success.
Imam in Arabic means leader. Leader can be pious like the prophets and their successors mentioned in Quran; (We made them Leaders (Imams) guiding people by Our order.) (Sura Anbiyaa', Verse 73). Leader can be bad person who misleads his followers away from Allah and leads them to hellfire as we read in Quran (And We made them leaders call to the Hell Fire) ( Qasas, Verse 41).
The leader in prayers is called in Arabic Imam al-Jama'ah, while the leader of Friday prayers is called Imam al-Jum'ah.
In some non Arabic languages they call him Pesh Namaz (Leader of prayer).
It also depends on the society as we see in Europe and America, they call him Imam , while in other countries they call him Shaikh or Shaykh. In the Indian subcontinent, Sunni and Shia Muslims use the title of Maulana for religious teachers and leaders of prayers.
Shia Muslims live all over the world and they have their own cultural varieties which is respected in Islam as far as it does not contradict any Islamic teaching.
Islamic Shariah contains rules to organize the Muslim society in
all the dimensions starting from the personal life to the family life
to the social life and to the whole humankind relationship. Rules in
Islam do not mean insult but it means organizing the society in the
best way for the interest of everyone.
Illegitimately born child has got rules in Islam which aim to keep
him/her away from the public criticism. As the child did not commit a sin
and he/she should not pay for the sin of his/her parents.
The illegitimate child in Islam is kept away from leading the public
because that will make him a target of criticism and abuse from people
who will say that he was born from illegitimate act.
Islam also does not want to legitimise any illegitimate act. That is
why the child born from an illegitimate relationship cannot be a
leader in the community because that will encourage some people to go
for illegitimate sexual relationships.
An illegitimate child is not allowed to be Marja’ of Taqleed. He can
be a highly educated scholar but he cannot be Marja’ of Taqleed.
That also is not only for him but also for other respected persons in
the community like our respected ladies.
If a pious and highly educated female Islamic scholar becomes a
Mujtahidah, her own son or brother cannot follow her in Taqleed
because one of the conditions of Marja’ of Taqleed is to be a man.
And also for leading the Jamaat prayers, the congregation prayer, one
of the conditions is that the leader of the congregation prayer must
be a man and must be born from a legitimate marriage.
Islam does not allow us to pray behind pious ladies like our own
mothers. So that does not mean any insult to our mothers but it is part of
organisation which must be followed, and that is similar when we are not allowed to pray behind a person who was born from an illegitimate relationship.
That does not mean that we are punishing him but Allah SWT wants the
organisation of the society to go on to avoid pointing the fingers to
such persons and also a way from legitimising an illegitimate sexual
act which took place.
An illegitimate person can be a lover of the Ahlul Bayt (AS) and will
get his full reward for all his good deeds because it is very clear in
the Holy Qur’an that (لا تزر وازرة وزر أخرى) “No one will carry the burden of
the act of others”. So the child who was born from an illegitimate
relationship will never carry the burden of the sinful acts committed
by his parents. He will get the reward of his good deeds like any
In fact Islam has kept the respect of such persons to keep them away from
the public leadership and observation so that their life can go on like any other person
and they will get the reward of their good deeds like any other