Mu'awiyah ibn Abu Sufyan
Muawiyah I (معاوية بن أبي سفيان, romanized: Muʿāwiya ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) was the founder and first caliph of the Umayyad caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan. In 657, Muawiya's army attacked the army of Ali ibn Abi Talib at the Battle of Siffin.
Sermon of Jum'ah was always given by the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) before the two Rak'ats of Jum'ah Prayer.
Mo'awiyah and Uthman before him tried changing it.
In the well known Sunni book Morooj Al-Thahab مروج الذهب (2:72) that Mo'awiyah prayed Jum'ah prayer on Wednesday when he returned from Siffeen.
Here are 12 pieces of evidence that show that Mu'awiya used to curse, and encourage the cursing of, Imam Ali b. Abi Talib.
EVIDENCE 1 - IBN HAJAR AL-’ASQALANI
ثم كان من أمر علي ما كان فنجمت طائفة أخرى حاربوه ثم أشتد الخطب فتنقصوه واتخذوا لعنه على المنابر سنة
“Then it was the matter of Ali and a group of people fought against him, then the situation got more complicated and they began to belittle him and they made cursing Ali from the pulpits, a regular habit”
Source - Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 7 page 57
EVIDENCE 2 - MUHAMMAD ABU ZAHRA
“And during the reign of Banu Umayya the dignity of Ali was attacked, he was cursed because Mu’awiya during his reign introduced the ugly bid`ah of cursing Ali.
His successors continued this tradition until the reign of Umar bin Abdul Aziz. The tradition entailed cursing the Imam of Guidance Ali at the end of the Friday Sermons, the Sahaba’s remonstrations that this was wrong was ignored, Mu’awiya and his Governors refused to desist from their actions.
Ummul’Momineen Salma (ra) wrote a letter to Mu’awiya and his respective Governors reminding them that by cursing ‘Ali they were in fact cursing Allah (swt) and his Prophet (s)”.
Source - Ta’rikh Madhahib al-Islam, Volume 1 page 35
EVIDENCE 3 - AL-DHAHABI
He has recorded the following statement of an important early Sunni scholar called Abd al-Rahman b. ‘Amr al-Awza’i (d. 157 H):
سمعت الأوزاعي يقول : ما أخذنا العطاء حتى شهدنا على علي بالنفاق وتبرأنا منه
Al-Awzai said: ‘We didn’t obtain gifts until we testified that Ali was a hypocrite and declared our disavowal towards him”.
Source - Siyar A’lam al-Nubala, Volume 7 page 130
EVIDENCE 4 - AL-TABARI - A
When Muawiya Ibn Abi Sufyan put al-Mughairah Ibn Shubah in charge of Kufah in Jumada 41 (September 2- October 30, 661), he summoned him. After praising and glorifying God, he said:
“Now then, indeed a forbearing person has been admonished in the past… The wise might do what you want without instruction. Although I have wanted to advise you about many things, I left them alone, trusting in your discernment of what pleases me, what helps my regime and what sets my subjects [raiyyah] on the right path. I would continue to advise you about a quality of yours- do not refrain from abusing Ali and criticizing him, not from asking God’s mercy upon Uthman and His forgiveness for him. Continue to shame the companions of Ali, keep at a distance, and don’t listen to them. Praise the faction of Uthman, bring them near, and listen to them.”
Source - History of Tabari, English version, events of year 51 AH, Execution of Hujr Ibn Adi, v18, pp 122-123
EVIDENCE 5 - AL-TABARI - B
“The Messenger of Muawiya then came to them (Ziyad) with orders to release six and to kill eight, telling them:
We have been ordered to let you disavow Ali and curse him. If you do so, we shall release you, and if you refuse, we shall kill you. “
Source - History of Tabari, English version, events of year 51 AH, v18, p149
EVIDENCE 6 - AHMAD B. HANBAL
“From Abdillah al-Mazini who said: ‘When Muawiya left Kufa he employed al-Mughirah ibn Shubah. ’He said: al-Mughirah hired orators to insult Ali’.”
Source - Musnad Ahmad, Volume 3 page 185
EVIDENCE 7 - HASAN B. FARHAN AL-MALIKI
والي المدينة وهو مروان بن الحكم في زمن معاوية كان يسب ويأمر بسب علي على المنابر، هذه حقيقة تاريخية ثابتة
“The governor of Madina, Marwan bin al-Hakam during the reign of Mu’awyia used to curse Ali and ordered the cursing of Ali from the pulpits; this is an affirmed historical fact.”
Source - Nahw Inqad al-Ta’rikh, Volume 3 page 22
EVIDENCE 8 - MUSLIM B. HAJJAJ
“The Governor of Medina who was one of the members of the house of Marwan called Sahl Ibn Sa’d, and ordered him to curse Ali. But Sahl refused to do so. The governor said: “If you don’t want to curse Ali, just say God curse Abu Turab (the nickname of Ali).” Sahl said: “Ali did not like any name for himself better than Abu Turab, and Ali used to become very happy when somebody would call him Abu Turab.”
Source - Sahih Muslim, Chapter of Virtues of Companions, Section of Virtues of Ali, Arabic version, v4, p1874, Tradition #38
EVIDENCE 9 - IBN TAYMIYYA
وقد كان من شيعة عثمان من يسب عليا ويجهر بذلك على المنابر
“There were from the followers of Uthman ones who used to abuse Ali openly from the Mosque pulpits”
Source - Minhaj al Sunnah, Volume 6 page 201
وأما حديث سعد لما أمره معاوية بالسب فأبى
“While the narration about Sa’d (relates to) when Mu’awyia ordered him to curse (‘Ali) but he refused”
Source - Minhaj al-Sunnah, Volume 5 page 42
EVIDENCE 10 - AL-QURTUBI
وقول معاوية لسعد بن أبي وقاص : ما منعك أن تسب أبا تراب ؛ يدل : على أن مقدم بني أمية كانوا يسبون عليا وينتقصونه
“The statement of Mu’awyia to Sa’d bin Abi Waqas “What prevents you from cursing Abu Turab” indicates that the first generation of Bani Umayya would abuse and belittle Ali.”
Source - Al-Mufhim, Volume 20 page 25
EVIDENCE 11 - IBN KATHIR
فاشترط أن يأخذ من بيت مال الكوفة خمسة آلاف ألف درهم، وأن يكون خراج دار أبجرد له، وأن لا يسب علي وهو يسمع
“He (Hasan) placed conditions of having five million from Kufa’s treasury, the income from the taxes of the city of Darabjird and not to curse Ali when he (al Hasan) could hear that”
Source - Al Bidayah wal Nihayah, Volume 8 page 17
EVIDENCE 12 - IBN ‘ABD RABBIH
“When Hassan bin Ali died, Mu’awyia performed the Hajj, and then entered into Madina where he wanted to curse Ali from Prophet’s pulpit, thus they said to him: ‘Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas is right here and he will not accept your behaviour, you should ask him first.’ Thus he sent for him and asked him about this to which he (Sa’d) said: ‘If you did it, I shall leave the mosque and never come here again.’
Thus Mu’awiya restrained himself from cursing (Ali) until Sa’d passed away, when Sa’d died, he cursed him (Ali) from the pulpit and also ordered his governors to curse him from the pulpits and they (his governors) did likewise. Then Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet (pbuh), wrote to Mu’awyia saying: ‘You are cursing Allah and his Messenger from your pulpits and that is as a result of cursing Ali bin Abi Talib and his lovers and I testify that Allah and his Messenger love him.’ However he (Mu’awyia) didn’t pay any attention to her statement”.
Source - al-’Iqd al-Farid, Volume 3 page 300
The practice of cursing and swearing at Imam Ali (a.s.) was officially introduced by Mu'awiyah.
It then became a custom for most of the Ummayad rulers, and continued for nearly 70 years. There are cases of some who refused to curse Imam Ali (a.s.), and they were severely punished.
Unfortunately, some Sunni scholars not only praise Mu'awiyah, but also refuse to accept this historical fact.
Of course, something that is worse than Mu'awiyah cursing Imam Ali (a.s.) was Mu'awiyah fighting against Imam Ali (a.s.) in the Battle of Siffin, and then usurping the khilafah from Imam Hasan (a.s.), and all the other atrocities he committed.
Here are some references from Sunni sources that mention Mu'awiyah cursing and/or commanding others to curse:
Sahih Muslim, vol. 7, p. 120, ch. merits of Ali.
Sunan Tirmidhi, vol. 5, p. 301.
Mustadrak 'ala al-Sahihayn, vol. 3, p. 109. [also see: vol. 1, p. 541].
Such things have also been mentioned in:
Musnad Ahmad, vol. 4, p. 369.
Tarikh al-Tabari, 124.
Tarikh al-Khulafa, 232.
Muruj al-Dhahab, vol. 3, p. 42.
The famous Sunni scholar al-Zamakhshari says that during the Ummayad era, seventy thousand pulpits were cursing Imam Ali (a.s.), introduced by Mu'awiyah. See; Rabi' al-Abrar.
Here is a link that has some of these narrations:
With prayers for your success.
Thank you for your question. The peace treaty brought the battle to an end as Muawiya's tactics had caused confusion in the army of Imam al-Hasan (as) making the continuation of armed struggle unwise. The Imam was unable to continue fighting because of discord in his army and so agreed to the treaty.
The meaning of vicegerency is that he is charged with acting on God's behalf and has the merit to do that. This is due to his complete servitude and spiritual station. There is no dichotomy between the decision of God and the decision of the Imam.
May you always be successful
These are few references in relation to the crimes of Muawiyah in killing innocent men, women and children including killing of the pious Sahabi Hujr bin Adi al-Kindi and other Sahaba in Sunni texts:
- al Bidaya wa al Nihaya, Volume 8 page 53 Dhikr 51 Hijri
- Tarikh Kamil, Volume 3 page 249 Dhikr 51 Hijri
- Tarikh ibn Asakir, Volume 12 page 227 Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi
- Tarikh ibn Khaldun, Volume 3 page 13 Dhikr 51 Hijri
- al Isaba, Volume 1 page 313 Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi
- Asad’ul Ghaba, Volume 1 page 244 Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi
- Shadharat ul Dhahab, Volume 1 page 57 Dhikr 51 Hijri
- Tabaqat al Kubra, Volume 6 page 217 Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi
- Mustadrak al Hakim, Volume 3 page 468-470 Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi
- Akhbar al Tawaal, page 186 Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi
- Tarikh Abu’l Fida, page 166 Dhikr 51 Hijri
- Muruj al Dhahab, Volume 3 page 12 Dhikr 53 Hijri
- Tarikh Yaqubi, Volume 2 page 219