Air travel is a form of travel in vehicles such as helicopters, hot air balloons, blimps, gliders, hang glider, parachuting, airplanes, jet aircraft, or anything else that can sustain flight.
Firstly I commend you for trying to keep up your Salah while working in an environment which can be difficult and limited in space.
If you are shia Muslim, washing the feet isn't needed; one simply needs to wipe the feet which can be easily done while sitting in a bathroom. Also wearing make up for women in front of non mahram men is not permissible according to most ulema and the make up should not be that which would block one's wudu by preventing water reaching the skin. It could be possible one makes wudu before applying make up however this could be difficult to hold until Salah time.
Also it's possible to delay your Salah until landing if it wouldn't become qada if that would be easier. In some cases, you could wait to pray once you reach a prayer of hotel room.
May Allah grant you success
You do not need to pay a kaffarah.
All you must do is redo that day as qadha`.
And Allah knows best.
In Shi'i fiqh, there is no problem with a woman travelling without a mahram.
In the Sunni schools of thought, travelling without a mahram is generally considered impermissible but sometimes allowed in some situations these days. So if she is looking for an answer in accordance with one of the Sunni schools of thought, she should consult someone knowledgeable about that specific school of thought.
It is not allowed for any Muslim female to wear any type or any degree of makeup in front of non Mahram men . If your employers force you to put red lipstick or any type of make up in front of men, then you must avoid that even if you have to leave the job if they insist on forcing you to do that, because it is against the teachings of Quran (Tell the believing women to lower their gaze and protect themselves (from sinful sexual acts) and not to show off their adornment except what is apparent .(Sura 24, Verse 31).
Thank you for your question. If your premise was that only reported actions of the Prophet (saw) are allowed, no matter what society or context, and that everything else is forbidden, then travelling by plane would not be allowed as planes were not invented at the time of the Prophet (saw) and since he (saw) didn't travel on one, travelling on one is not allowed.
However, if your premise in following the sunnah is that all actions are allowed, except for those forbidden by the Prophet (saw), and that the rest of his (saw) actions either preferable or obligatory (that distinction being decipherable through certain means), then that would not necessitate travelling on a plane being impermissible.
Most scholars and believers work on the second type of premise and others like it rather than the first, and that is why travelling by plane (anywhere) is allowed by the vast majority.
May you always be successful.
Simply, we must perform Namaz where ever we are according to the conditions of Namaz ; Wudhu, Taahir and allowed clothes, Qibla etc.
If you are in the airplane and do not know the direction of Qibla, you can ask the cabin crew about the direction of Makkah which is usually known to the captain.
If you can not stand for the whole time of Namaz, you must stand as much as you can facing the Qibla. if you can not perform Sojood, you should do the maximum that you can in standing (Qiyaam), Rukoo', and Sojood.
We must try to perform our obligatory Prayers (Salah) where ever we are including in an airplane. We must try to find a suitable place to stand for few minutes to pray.
The direction of Qibla can be known through the cabin crew who usually ask the pilot about the direction of Makkah. You can also see the map of the journey and check where is Makkah from your flight route. There are also Qibla applications which can help.
In case you have no way at all to know the Qibla direction, you must pray facing any direction. After praying towards any direction which is obligatory , it will be recommended (not obligatory) to pray towards the other three directions.
If you are for any reason not allowed to stand to pray in the airplane, you should pray in sitting position on your seat.
The main point here is that the obligatory Prayers Must be performed in the best possible way within its time and it is not allowed at all to leave praying the obligatory Prayers till its time goes away.
The Ka’ba is situated on the center of the earth. This is a miracle which has been confirmed and admitted by non Muslim scientists. No birds and planes can fly over the Ka’ba because of that miracle.
Since you will stay over 10 days, you will pray full
This would all depend on what time of the day/night you are travelling, and when your are leaving your place of iqamah, which is the place of your residence or where you have intended to stay for ten days or more.
If you leave your place of iqamah after noon time, you must stay fasting. If you leave before noon, you must break your fast once you exceed the boundaries of the place of your iqamah.
As for the next day, if you arrive before noon, you are able to stay in the state of imsak, from Fajr time, until you reach your destination, and then adjust your intention and make it intention of wajib fasting.
If you arrive after noon, then you will not be able to fast for that day.
And Allah knows best.
You are a traveler in this case and you can't fast.
But if you intend to stay in one place for at least 10 days then you have to offer your prayers completely and also fast.
Note that if you prayed a 4 unit prayer and you changed your mind (not to stay there for 10 days, then you have to pray completely and fast as many days as you will be there, like the next 2 days...)
Salaam alaykum, you can pray your dhuhr salah before maghrib once you arrive in LA. You need to pray maghrib-'isha, and fajr on the flight back to London. If you can pray dhuhr-'asr before maghrib in London, then you can do that, as maghrib is now approx 6:00 pm.