Fakhr al-Din al-Razi
Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī or Fakhruddin Razi (Persian: فخر الدين رازي) was an Iranian Sunni Muslim theologian and philosopher He was born in 1149 in Rey (in modern-day Iran), and died in 1209 in Herat (in modern-day Afghanistan). He also wrote on medicine, physics, astronomy, literature, history and law.
He left a very rich corpus of philosophical and theological works that reveals influence from the works of Ibn Sīnā, Abu'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī and al-Ghazali.
Salamu Alaikum. I came across this fascinating article which describes in detail the contributions of a variety of scholars to the field of psychology. I hope that this can help answer some of your questions.
Al-islam.org also has some information on this specific scholar : https://www.al-islam.org/history-muslim-philosophy-volume-1-book-3/chapter-32-fakhr-al-razi