Gog and Magog
Gog and Magog (; Hebrew: גּוֹג וּמָגוֹג, Gōg ū-Māgōg; Syriac: ܓܘܓ ܘܡܓܘܓ; Arabic: يَأْجُوجُ وَمَأْجُوجُ, Yaʾjūj wa-Maʾjūj) appear in the Hebrew Bible, Christian Bible, and Quran as individuals, tribes, or lands. In Ezekiel 38, Gog is an individual and Magog is his land; in Genesis 10, Magog is a man, but no Gog is mentioned; and centuries later Jewish tradition changed Ezekiel's "Gog from Magog" into "Gog and Magog", which is the form in which they appear in the Christian New Testament's Book of Revelation, although there they are peoples rather than individuals.The Gog prophecy is meant to be fulfilled at the approach of what is called the "end of days", but not necessarily the end of the world. Jewish eschatology viewed Gog and Magog as enemies to be defeated by the Messiah, which would usher in the age of the Messiah.
Gog and Magog or Yaʾjuj wa Maʾjuj (Arabic: یَأجوج وَ مَأجوج) are tribes mentioned in the Qur'an and the religious texts of Judaism and Christianity. "Gog" and "Magog" are characterized in religious texts as a cruel group (مفسدون في الأرض)( Doing big mischief on earth) (Sura 18, Verse 94) who harassed and abused others and plundered their possessions. On the Qur'anic account, Dhu l-Qarnayn ذو القرنين constructed a dam, at the request of people who were oppressed by "Gog" and "Magog", in order to protect them against their aggression. The dam was known as "Sadd Dhu l-Qarnayn" (the Dam of Dhu l-Qarnayn) or the "Dam of Gog and Magog". Some people have speculated that the dam is located in northern Georgia. The Qur'an as well as the religious texts of Christianity and Judaism have referred to the destruction of the dam and the renewed riot of "Gog" and "Magog" as an event in End Time.
The Qur'an has referred to Gog and Magog in Sura al-Kahf, verses 93-98 and Sura al-Anbiya', verse 96 as people who did mischief in the land and harmed others. In Sura al-Anbiya', the riot of "Gog" and "Magog" is mentioned as an indication of the End Time.
In one of his journeys, Dhul Qarnayn, a believing king, arrived in a region which was located between two mountains. People of the region told him that "Gog" and "Magog" who lived on the other side of the mountain frequently invaded their lands and plundered everything. People asked Dhul Qarnayn to construct a dam preventing "Gog" and "Magog" in exchange for some money. With the help of people, he constructed a dam with molten iron and copper without receiving any money from them. The dam came to be known as the "Dam of Dhu l-Qarnayn" or the "Dam of Gog and Magog". The Qur'an has narrated the story in verses 93 to 98 of Sura al-Anbiya'. Some people believe that the dam is located in Darial Gorge in the north of Tbilisi on the Georgia-Russia border.
The Qur'an has mentioned that the riot of "Gog and Magog" is an indication of the events of the End Time. In the verse 96 of Sura al-Anbiya', God has reported about a sign of the End Time: "Until when Gog and Magog are let loose, and they race down from every slope."
Their riot in the End Time was also mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel in the Old Testament and the Book of Revelation of John in the New Testament.
In the past few decades, some Islamic scholars have put forward the view that Dajjal is metaphorical for an evil system, such as capitalism. Others hold to the literal view in hadith that Dajjal is a one-eyed person who will arise at the end of time, have many followers, cause suffering and harm, deceive people into following him, and ultimately be defeated by the Mahdi (A). (In that, the Mahdi will be supported by Jesus (A))
It is often difficult to understand future prophecies until they happen. Certainly, many prophecies about the Dajjal would have seemed fanciful in the past. For instance, there is mention of the Dajjal having a smoky chariot that crosses great distances at great speed. However, these days, this sounds normal to us. 50 years ago, the idea that, in the end times, the believer in the east will see the believer in the west was farfetched, and yet today we can do it with mobile phones.
When it is time for the reappearance of the Mahdi (A), it will be clear. Of course, in the meantime, it is good to be cautious of things that have a Dajjal-like aspect - in particular, deceiving people and causing suffering - whether or not they are individual leaders or intangible things such as ideologies.
There are a lot of views in narrations about what Gog and Magog are. Some identify specific peoples. Some refer to them being something other than Bani Adam (i.e. not humans). Some attribute peculiar and non-human traits ot them. They are also discussed in the Jewish and Christian traditions and they also have various ideas about who they are. Some people may have been tempted to draw parallels between Gog and Magog and twentieth-century powers such as the US and the USSR; however, given that the international situation is always changing, it seems that this is unlikely. In any case, this doesn't match the Qur'anic view of them existing in ancient times and having a wall built between them (18:94-95). So, basically, this is an issue which there are many viewpoints about. For more information you can look at tafsir works on the verses of the Qur'an pertaining to Gog and Magog.