Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.
It is compulsory for every Muslim to perform the daily prayers within
its timings. There is no reason at all to justify postponing the
prayers till its time goes away. Your reason (it is too cold in my
home) can never be valid. Muslims who live near the Himalayan
mountains with 12 months of snow perform all their prayers on time and
even in many Muslim villages they perform it in congregation. There is
no question of your waiting for the weather to be warm to perform your
daily prayers. This is nothing but Satanic whispering as Shaitan
always tries to prevent people from performing Salaah. Surah 5 -Verse
91 states : “Shaitan wants only to excite enmity and hatred between
you by intoxicants and gambling and wants to hinder you from
remembering Allah (SWT) and from Salaah. So will you not then
You must perform your prayers in time whatever the climate is and you
must seek forgiveness for any prayers you have missed and you must
perform it as Qadhaa as soon as possible.
Yes, but it is better if it can stay outside (such as in a dog house, if that is possible on your property; these days, they do have outdoor heaters for animals if that is a possibility).
I am sure you are familiar with the hadith saying that having a dog inside affects acceptance of prayers; Allah knows best. Of course, we are also supposed to be compassionate, and it is not compassionate to let it freeze to death!
Yes you can interact with it and train it.
Yes, be sure to observe taharah for salat and any other necessary things such as dishes.
People have had dogs as work animals for centuries, and even the Ashab al-Kahf had a dog around them. As someone once said, it is not the dog's fault that it is najis!
If fasting is very difficult for a person then he can do it later.