Eid al-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر ʻĪd al-Fiṭr), also called the "Festival of Breaking the Fast", is a religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (ṣawm). This religious Eid (Muslim religious festival) is the first and only day in the month of Shawwal during which Muslims are not permitted to fast. The holiday celebrates the conclusion of the 29 or 30 days of fasting during the entire month of Ramadan.
Eid Prayer is allowed to be prayed in congregation because it is in its original form an obligatory prayer in the presence of the Prophet (SAWA) and the Imam (AS). It is not like Salat Al-Lay or Nafila or Ghofaila etc which is always recommended. The reason behind praying Eid Namaz in congregation is its original form which is Wajib.
It is highly recommended to sacrifice on Eid Al-Adha, but it is not obligatory except on pilgrims in Hajj. The narration you mentioned means the importance of the sacrifice and the great reward of it but does not mean that it is obligatory.
Yes it is permissible to pray Eid prayers in Sunni mosque. Eid prayer can be performed in congregation ( Jama'ah) as well as individually (Furada). When pray with congregation of Sunni brothers, you need to recite every Sura and Du'a in whispering without clear voice. This is exactly like praying any prayer with Sunni congregation.
Qunoot is highly recommended in Prayers but not obligatory in any Salah.
Eid Al-Zahra ( 9th Rabi'ul Awwal) is one of the big days of happiness for Ahlul Bayt (AS). It is mentioned as the second Ghadeer. It is the day of the end of one of the main enemies of Lady Fatimah Al-Zahra (SA). In Quran we read that the believers celebrate and rejoice the end of the enemies of Allah (Sura 30, Verse 4).
Hadeeth of Ahmad Ibn Is-Haq al-Ash'ari from from Imam Hasan Al-Askari (AS) stated that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) has informed his grandsons Hasan and Husain to celebrate this day because it will be the end of their mother's enemy. ( Dala'il al-Imamah by ibn Jareer al-Tabari and Rawdhaat al-Jannaat by al-Khonsari, page 768.
Qurbani is compulsory on pilgrims during Hajj but recommended for those who are not in Hajj.
In the name of Allah
Considering the obligatory Qurbani (sacrificing sheep, goat, etc.) for a Haji (Pilgram to Makkah) in the Hajj al-Tamattu on the Day of Eid al-Adha, every Haji should offer One Qurbani and not less. so sharing it with another Haji won't work.
However, for a Mustahab (recommended) Qurbani, any number of people can contribute and share the Thawab of one Qurbani.
Eid is determined and celebrated based on the present location of a Muslim, not according to the sighting of the moon in the town where they were born or have a permanent home.
It comes down to different methods of sighting. Sayyid Sistani says that the moon has to be sighted with the naked eye; Sayyid Khamenei rules that using a telescope is permissible. Astronomists also say that technically the new moon starts before it can be seen by either of these, but generally the ruling is that it has to be sighted.
Another issue is the 'sharing of the same night'. This method used to be used. I.e. if a region shares a night, then the declaring of the moon from one part of that region would apply to all. This is now no longer being used as a criterion. Instead, Sayyid Sistani and Sayyid Khamenei say that you must follow your local horizon, so usually the moon can be seen in Southern Europe before it can in Northern Europe; hence, Spain will have Eid one day earlier than England.
as salam alaikum
the are different opinions on how a person should see the new moon. The major ones can be summarized as follows:
SIGHTING THE NEW MOON LOCALLY (VALID FOR ALL PLACES THAT SHARE THE SAME HORIZON) WITH NAKED EYE
This is the fatwa of Ayatollah Khomeyni, Ayatollah Sistani, Ayatollah Mararem Shirazi, Ayatollah Shobeyri Zanjani, Ayatollah Subhani, Ayatollah Qorban Ali Kabuli and Ayatollah Muhammad Sadiq Sadr.
SIGHTING THE NEW MOON IN A CITY WITH NAKED EYE AND VALIDATING THE SIGHTING FOR ALL THE OTHER PLACES THAT SHARE WITH IT THE SAME NIGHT
This is the fatwa of Ayatollah Khu'i, Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir Sadr, Ayatollah Muhammad Araki, Ayatollah Ruhani, Ayatollah Ishaq Fayyad, Ayatollah Wahid Khorasani and Ayatollah Bashir Najafi.
SIGHTING THE NEW MOON LOCALLY (VALID FOR ALL PLACES THAT SHARE THE SAME HORIZON) WITH THE HELP OF A TELESCOPE
This is the fatwa of Ayatollah Khamene'i, Ayatollah Muhammad Taqi Bahjat, Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani and Ayatollah Muhammad Taqi Mudarrisi.
SIGHTING THE NEW MOON WITH NAKED EYE AND VALIDATING THE SIGHTING FOR ALL THE OTHER PLACES THAT SHARE WITH IT THE SAME NIGHT BUT MAKING A DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE OLD CONTINENT (EUROPE, AFRICA, ASIA AND AUSTRALIA) AND THE NEW CONTINENT (NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA).
This is the fatwa of Ayatollah Muhammad Sa'id Hakim.
With prayers for your success.
as salam alaikum
it is important for everyone to celebrate 'Id by going masjid and pray Salat al-'Id.
If a person did not fast due to valid excuses and fasting would have lead him to unbearable hardship, he should give a fidiyah for every day that he has missed. Otherwise, if he did not fast and he did not have valid excuses, he should ask forgiveness and pay kaffarah.
With prayers for your success.