The Arabic word qada (قُضِي) means literally "carrying out or fulfilling". In Islamic jurisprudence it refers to fulfilling or completing those duties that one may have missed due to some reason or other.
This is a matter of diference in opinion among our esteemed jurists, and therefore you must refer to your Marja' taqleed.
However, it is indeed less confusing and more simple if prayers are redone on a day by day Qadha'. Starting with Dhuhr, and ending with Fajr, and ticking each day off as you go along.
And Allah knows best.
The eldest son is responsible to perform the obligatory Qadha prayers of his father if it was missed due to a valid reason like illness etc. If the parents did not perform their obligatory prayers for no valid reason, the Qadha is not obligatory on the eldest son. Although, it is very good for him or other children to pay for persons who perform Qadha prayers on behalf of deceased persons to perform the obligatory Qadha prayers of the deceased. This will help the deceased a lot.
I can understand dear brother or sister how much of a challenge it can be for someone to do salah in a non-Islamic work place. Some managers do not understand the importance of Salah for Muslims and may only permit for one to do it on their break. This can be problematic since the break period could be before the salah starts, or at a time when the salah could be qada.
Usually though around this time in the summer, one has a lot of time to pray zuhr and. Asr. Of course it is better to pray them on time however not all circumstances may permit that. Let us say for example zuhr time is at 1:00pm but you could only pray it at 4pm. As long as maghrib time hasn’t set in, you would be still be able to do the salah within an acceptable time period.
In many work places people go for cigarette or toilet breaks so if these were permitted but not a short prayer break, it could possibly be discrimination. How could one have a right to smoke for 5 -10 minutes yet a Muslim isn’t able to pray within a similar time period?!
If one had very extreme circumstances where they had no other way, it is also possible one could pray in a bathroom if they had tahir mat. This is however makruh meaning the salah would have less reward. I do know of some cases where some were forced to perform salah in a staff bathroom which had a lock on the door. This way they could perform their salah without it being qada and without being prevented.
You should try to speak to your non-Muslim colleague or manager and inshallah a flexible arrangement can be agreed on.
Some ulema state that one must leave the job which would prevent them from doing Salah and must pick a job in which they are able to do salah.
It should be noted that it isn’t permissible to purposely delay salah past qada time, so you cannot just pray them qada the next day instead within the set time.
May Allah grant you success
Yes. Recommended Prayers especially Salat al-Layl ( Night prayer) is highly recommended for every one including those who have unfulfilled Qadha prayers on them. No doubt, the reward of performing Qadha prayers is much more than the reward of recommended prayers.
You must perform every prayer within its time and never miss any obligatory prayer.
You should make up the missed prayers and you can also personally ask Allah for forgiveness during du'a.
No, as far as you are still alive. You must perform your own Qadha as soon as you can during your life. If a person passes away before completing all his Qadha prayers and fast and Hajj, some one else will be allowed to perform the Qadha on his behalf whether with payment or with out payment.
You can ask or pay during your life to some one to perform Qadha after your death but this will not free you from the responsibility of the Qadha until you perform it yourself during your life. If you die before performing your own Qadha worship, you have to suffer a lot till Qadha is completed after your death.
Yes, she has to perform Qadha for Morning Prayer which she missed after being clear from the menstruation. She should have performed Tayammum and prayed on the time of Morning Prayer if Ghusl was not possible.
If you do not know the exact number of Qadha prayers on you, you should have an idea about minimum and maximum numbers. The obligatory Qadha will be the minimum which you are sure about, and the precaution is more than that.
Only the obligatory parts in reciting and actions with out recommended reciting or actions.
The fastest way to perform the Qadha prayers is to recite the obligatory parts of Salah only with out any recommended part. Starting the Qadha prayer with intention in the heart only and no Azaan and no Iqamah but only Takbiratul Ehram then reciting Sura Al-Hamd and short Sura, then Rokoo' with Subhana Rabbial Adheem, then Sojood with Subhana Rabbial A'la.
Yes, because Salah is invalid before its time. If you are sure that the whole Salah was before the time, not part of it, then it should be repeated. If part of the Salah was before and part inside the time then many Ulama say that it can be valid.