Fatimah bint Muhammad (فاطمة Fāṭimah; born 615 AD, 5 BH – died 28 August 632 [disputed]) was the youngest daughter and, according to Shia Muslims, the only child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah who lived to adulthood, and therefore part of Muhammad's household. Her husband was Ali, the last of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, and her children include Hasan and Husayn, the second and third Shia Imams, respectively. She is the object of love and respect of Muslims, as she was the child closest to her father and supported him in his difficulties, was the supporter and loving caretaker of her own husband and children, and was the only child of Muhammad to have male children live beyond childhood, whose descendants are spread throughout the Islamic world and are known as Sayyids.
1. Purity of bloodline because of the connection to Lady Fatima (AS) remains with every one who has this connection whether from his Sayyed father or Sayyedah mother.
2. There is another jurisprudence rule to define the Sayyed person who will be allowed to give his obligatory Zakat or Fitra to needy Sayyed. Most of our Maraaje' of Taqleed say that the definition of Sayyed is the person who was born from Sayyed father.
These are two different issues.
Imam Ali (AS) had been ordered by the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) not to fight against them as that can initiate civil war among Muslims and that exactly was what those people and the enemies of Islam want. He controlled over himself as he said : I kept patience with all the hardships فصبرت وفي الخلق شجى وفي العين قذى
Imam Ali (AS) obeyed the orders of the Prophet (SAWA) in not fighting. He had no aim but preserving Islam for the all coming generations and not letting the evil acts of some persons cause damage to the Message which was sent to guide the whole human beings all the time.
He said: I will remain peaceful as far as Islam safe and injustice is on me and my family.
The attack on the house of Fatima Zahra (AS) has been admitted by leading Sunni leaders including Abu Bakr himself who openly said when he was about to die that I wish that I did not attack the house of Fatima even if it was a center of war against me. This is narrated by eminent Sunni scholars like:
1. Al-Tabarani in al-Mo'jam al-Kabeer ,
2. al-Dhahabi in Meesan al-E'tidaal,
3. Ibn Qutaiba and quoted by Ibn A'bd Rabbih in his book al-E'qd al-Fareed.
4. al-Mas'oodi in amorous al-Dhahab.
5. Ibn Asaakir in Tareekh Dimishq.
6. al-Haithami in Majma' al-Zawaa'id.
7. al-Soyouti in Musnad Fatimah
8. al-Muttaqi al-Hindi in Kanz al-Ummaal.
Beside this, we have hundreds of Sunni books who narrated about the attack and fire to burn the house or door of Fatimah e.g.
1. Tareekh al-Tabari , V.2, P. 443.
2. Mussannaf Abi Shaibah, V. 8, P. 572.
3. al-E'qd al-Fareed , V.2, P. 73.
4. Ibn Abd al-Barr in al-Estee'aab, V. 1, P. 298.
5. al-Waafi bil Wafayaat by al-Safari, V.2, P.227.
6. Kanzul Ummah , V.5, P.651.
7. Abul-Fidaa' in al-Mukhtasar Fi aakhbaar al- Bashar, V.1, P.107.
8. Ibn Taymiyyah (the staunch enemy of Ahlul Bayt) in his book Minhajul Sunnah, V.8, P. 291.
9.Ibn Hajar al-A'sqalani in Lisaan al-Mizan, V.1, P.111.
10. al-Dhahbi in Milan al-E'tidaal, V.1, P. 139 and in Siyar A'laam al-Nubalaa', V. 15, P. 578.
11. Al-Tabarani in al-Mo'jam al-Kabeer , V.1, P. 17.
12, Al-Haithami on Mo'jam al-Zawaa'id, V.2, P. 353.
and many other Sunni sources.
The shrine of Sakina is in Dariyya near Damascus. It has been reconstructed recently by Allama Sayyed Ahmad al-Wahedi who has compiled number of narrations supporting that Sakina was a daughter of Imam Ali (AS) and Fatima (AS) including:
1. A narration in Mustadrak Safeenatul Bihar by al-Namazi, vol.5 , p.90 in which imam Zainul Abideen (AS) narrated from Sakina about the greatness of Fatimah (AS).
2. In Amaali al-Tousi a narration from Imam Husain (AS) mentioning Sakina his my sister (Wasa'il al-Shia by al-Hurr al-'Aamili , v. 14, p.168).
3. In Biharul Anwaar (v.45, p.104), a narration that Ameerul Mo'mineen (AS) called all his children by their names to say fair well to their mother Fatimah (AS) before her burial and mentioned Sakina among them.
No, we don't have any evidence suggesting double punishment or double reward just because of the name. We have evidence to treat those who are named Fatima nicely because of the greatness of the name of Fatima.
In Kitab al-Kafi (6:48) it is narrated that Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq (AS) said: If you name your daughter as Fatima, you should never abuse her.
The most authentic sources indicate that Fatima al-Zahra (SA) was born five years after the Bi'thah (Prophethood declaration ) which is three years after the Esraa'.
and Kashf al-Ghummah by al-Erbali; 1:449,
and al-Manaaqib by Ibn Shahr Ashoob 3:357.
Authentic evidence from Abi Jafar (AS) stated that her birth was five years after Bi'thah. Al-Kafi 1:457 and from Abi Abdullah Al-Sadiq (AS) ; Dala'il al-Imamah 18/79 and from Imam Al-Redha (AS) ; Tareesh Al-A'immah by Ibn Abi al-Thalj.
Some Sunni books narrated different narrations but not authentic as the statements of Ahlul Bayt (AS) mentioned above.
'The age of Fatima Al-Zahra (AS) when she was martyred was eighteen years according to the most authentic sources.
The Sayyid title is applied to all of the descendants of Hashim (they are called Hashimis) so it includes all of Imam Ali's (as) children.
May you always be successful
Yes it is allowed.
Lady Fatima (SA) is the greatest lady and the best lady in the Paradise and seeking her intersession is a very good way to get our wished fulfilled.
There are many books written on this important subject but not all of them are translated to English. There is a book available on line which was published by Amazon: THE TRAGEDY OF FATIMA DAUGHTER OF THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD, by Allama Sayyid Murtada Al-Amili, translated by Yasin Al-Jibouri.
Also it might be useful for you to see this link
It is important to remember that people have always had choices. That is the reason why we hold those accountable who committed misdeeds, because they chose to do so. They were not born to play the part of villains.
It is not as if God had determined that Fadak must be usurped and that someone must be created who will do so.
It is also not the case that God had determined that a wife of the Prophet (s) must fight Imam 'Ali (a) and so she was put out there in the world of creation to fulfil that role.
Think of it this way. It was entirely possible for the first caliph and his daughter not to commit the misdeeds that they did. So why ought they have been punished before they could even be tested with that choice?
Did not Abu Bakr have another child, and Ayesha a brother, who was the most devoted Shi'a of Imam 'Ali (a) and fought against his own sister in defence of Imam 'Ali?
He was not predestined to be the good person in a pre-planned drama, like some kind of an angelic robot. He also made choices in his life. And so we remember him with affection and praise.
I believe that the nature of knowledge given by God to the Prophet (s) and the Imams (a) must be understood with the above in mind.
Allah, The Glorious, tests the followers of the prophets to distinguish between the sincere from the insincere. Allah(SWT) made the Prophet Noah (AS) marry a woman who turned to be disobedient then from the people of hellfire, same was the wife of Prophet Lut (AS). Allah (SWT) aims to examine the faith of people who claim being followers of the Prophet (SAWA) as we read in Quran:
1. (Allah will not leave the believers in the state in which you are now until He distinguish the bad from the good). Sura Aal Imran, verse 179.
2. (In order that Allah may distinguish the bad persons from the good persons ) Sura Al-Anfaal, verse 37.
Having a disobedient wife among good wives and insincere companion among sincere companions makes the bad persons follow the bad, while sincere persons keep on following the Prophet (SAWA) and his successors.
It is not possible for us to read these books currently because they are in the possession of Imam Mahdi (A) only. When Imam Mahdi returns, perhaps he might share them - God knows best.
Sometimes "jafr" is used for other things, or other books are circulated which are said to be the book of Jafr, but these are not the same as the Jafr described in hadith as in the hands of the Imams (A). If they are attributed to the Imams, it is a false attribution.