Fatimah bint Muhammad (فاطمة Fāṭimah; born 615 AD, 5 BH – died 28 August 632 [disputed]) was the youngest daughter and, according to Shia Muslims, the only child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah who lived to adulthood, and therefore part of Muhammad's household. Her husband was Ali, the last of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, and her children include Hasan and Husayn, the second and third Shia Imams, respectively. She is the object of love and respect of Muslims, as she was the child closest to her father and supported him in his difficulties, was the supporter and loving caretaker of her own husband and children, and was the only child of Muhammad to have male children live beyond childhood, whose descendants are spread throughout the Islamic world and are known as Sayyids.
It is mentioned in La'ali al-Akhbar (vol 3, p 413) and attributed to Imam al-Baqir (A) that the angel Jibra'il told the Prophet (S) that the planet Venus (the evening star) would descend on Friday night on the house of the person whom Fatima (A) should marry. The people waited to see who it was, and it was the house of Ali (A).
This narration is provided as part of the explanation of the origins of the tasbih of Fatima al-Zahra (A).
I am personally not aware of any chain of narration for this and therefore, without a chain of narration, it would not be classified as authentic.
Allah knows best.
The status of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) and his Holy Progeny is higher than the status of Ka'bah and any one and any thing created by Allah (SAWA). The Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) is the best and the highest among the creatures of Allah (SWT). His holy Progeny are from him and their status is from his highest status.
It is said that Fatima al-Zahra (A) and Imam 'Ali (A) got married in the second year after the migration to Medina, after the Battle of Badr (so approximately 624 AD)
However, biographers do not agree about when Fatima al-Zahra (A) was born. Sunni biographers often say she was born around 605 AD, whereas Shi'i biographers often say she was born around 614-615 AH. There are some other views as well.
So, she would have been around nine or nineteen years old at the time of her marriage.
It seems reasonable that she would have married young since men are eager to seek the daughters of important men for marriage, and it is reported that others had already asked for her hand. But God knows best.
Authentic Hadeeths from the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) explaining the meanings of Sura Al-Rahman; verses 19 to 22, مَرَجَ البَحرَين يَلتَقِيان (Allah Has created two seas which merge together) stated that the two seas are Ali and Fatima who merged and from them jewels came out who are Hasan and Husain. This Hadeeth has been narrated our authentic books and in Sunni books like:
1. Yanabee' Al-Mawaddah by al-Qondoozi Al-Hanafi from Abi Sa'ee Al-Khudri and Abdullah Ibn Abbas and Anas Ibn Malik.
2. Al-Kashf WAL Bayan by al-Tha'labi from Sufyan al-Thawri.
3. Shawahud al-Tanzeel by al-Hasakani.
4. Rooh al-Ma'ani by al-Aaloosi al-Shafi'ee.
5. Maqtal al-Husain by al-Khawarizmi al-Hanafi.
6. Al-Durrell al-Manthour by al-Soyoti al-Shafi'ee.
7. Al-Manaqib by al-Kashfi al-Hanafi.
8. Kitab al-Shifaa' by Al-Qadhi 'Eyadh>
9. Tathkirat Al-Khawaass by Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi al-Hanbali.
10. Nozhat al-Majaalis by al-Safoori al-Shafi'ee.
11. Miftah al-Najaa by al-Badakhshi.
12. Al-Haafidh Abu Na'eem in his book; Maa Nazal min al-Quran.
13.Ibn al-Maghazili in al-Manaqib.
14. Ibn al-Sabbagh al-Maliki in al-Fosool al-Mohimmah.
15. Al-Balkhi al-Shafi'ee in al-Manaqib.
Fatima (AS) is part of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) as he said in the authentic Hadeeth narrated in Shia and Sunni books فاطمة بضعة مني.
- (Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Hadeeth number 3437 and 3483)
- Saheeh Muslim; 4482 and 4483).
Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal; 15539.
Trmithi; 3802 and 3804.
al-Mustadrak ALAL-Saheehain by Al-Haakim Al-Nisabori ; 4747 and 4751. And many other Sunni main books of Hadeeth.
As the status of the Prophet Muhammad is the best and the highest among all the prophets, Fatimah who is part from him is higher in her degree from all the previous prophets. If fact no one can be compared with Fatimah after her father and her husband. She is the best human being after her father and her husband.
The attackers wanted to start a fight among Muslims, while Imam Ali (AS) was following the orders of the Prophet (SAWA) not to fight because fighting them will lead to civil war among Muslims which will weaken the Muslim society and the religion of Islam which was facing many enemies from non believers and hypocrites. Imam Ali (AS) did not fight against them for very important reason which is obeying the order of the Prophet (SAWA) to avoid civil war.
The attack on the door of Fatima (s.a.) and setting fire to burn her door and her house has been mentioned in many authentic and prominent Sunni books as well as Shia books. From the Sunni books where you can find this attack has been mentioned is:
1. Al-Imamah Wal Siyasa by Ibn Qutaibah , Volume 1 Page 30. الإمامة والسياسة لابن قتيبة .
2. Al-Mukhtasar Fi Akhbaar Al-Bashar المختصر في أخبار البشر Volume 1 Page 156 by Abul Fida Ismael.
3. Tareekh Al-Tabari by Volume 3 Page 198.
4. Ansaab Al-Ashraaf by Al-Balathuri أنساب الأشراف للبلاذري Volume 1 Page 586.
5. Al-Milal Wal Nihal narrating from Al-Nadhdham Volume 1 Page 56.
6. Al-Iqd Al-Fareed by Ibn Abd Rabbeh Volume 5 Page 12.
7. Tareekh al-Ya’qoubi, V.2, P.126.
8. Al-Bad’ WAL-Tareekh by al-Maqdisi, 5:151.
9. Al-Kaamil fil Tareekh by Ibn al-Atheer, 2:325.
10. Al-Mussannaf by Ibn Shaibah, 8:572.
11. Al-Estee’aab by Ibn Abd al-Birr, 1:298.
12. Al-Waafi bil Wafayaat by al-Safadi, 2:227.
13. It is narrated in many prominent Sunni books that Abu Bakr when he was about to die, did mention that he committed three things in his life he wished that he never did any of them. One of them is his attacking the house of Fatima (s.a.). This statement of Abu Bakr confirms the attack on the house of Fatimah and it is narrated in many Sunni books like:
14. Mizaan al-E’tidaal by Al-Dhahabi, Volume 2 Page 215.
15. In Kanzul Ummal , Volume 5 Page 631.
16. In Lisaan Al-Mizaan by Al-Asqalani Volume 4 Page 219.
17. In Murooj Al-Dhahab, Volume 2 Page 301.
18. In Al-Imamah Was-Siyasah by Ibn Qutaiba Volume 1 Page 18
19. and In Tareeq Al-Tabarri Volume 2 Page 619.
All these Sunni references and many others prove that the attack on the house of Fatima did happen and her door was burnt by the attackers.
Both "yes" and "no".
It is not prescribed in Qur'an or hadith.
Rather, it is a cultural or regional symbol. The hand as a protective symbol predates Islam and is not limited to Muslims, for instance, Jews also use the hand symbol, and some people call it the "Hand of Mary".
However some Shi'is have given it religious significance by using it to represent the ahl al-kisa'/panjtan (Muhammad, 'Ali, Fatimah, Hasan, and Husayn) and have used it to symbolise the intercession or protection of Hazrat Fatimah (A). In that way, it can symbolise her status and importance.
Possibly, it acquired this symbolism related to Hazrat Fatimah (A) and the panjtan during the Fatimid (Isma'ili) dynasty in North Africa (c. 10th-12th centuries CE).
Since, from ancient times, the symbol was often worn to protect mothers during childbirth, or to protect young children from the evil eye, this may be one reason why it was associated with a female figure. Maybe associating it with Fatimah also reflects hope in her motherly care since she is also often seen an archetypal mother figure, similar to the Virgin Mary.
However, some Shi'is also call it the Hand of 'Abbas due to what happened in Karbala and use it to represent similar things, such as honoring him, and seeking intercession and protection.
Some Sunnis also refer to it as the "Hand of Fatimah".
So, in short, the significance of it among Shi'is (or Muslims) is due to cultural practices that have developed over time to reflect religious ideals, in conjunction with the existing regional culture, rather than things that are prescribed in Qur'an or hadith.
1. Purity of bloodline because of the connection to Lady Fatima (AS) remains with every one who has this connection whether from his Sayyed father or Sayyedah mother.
2. There is another jurisprudence rule to define the Sayyed person who will be allowed to give his obligatory Zakat or Fitra to needy Sayyed. Most of our Maraaje' of Taqleed say that the definition of Sayyed is the person who was born from Sayyed father.
These are two different issues.
Imam Ali (AS) had been ordered by the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) not to fight against them as that can initiate civil war among Muslims and that exactly was what those people and the enemies of Islam want. He controlled over himself as he said : I kept patience with all the hardships فصبرت وفي الخلق شجى وفي العين قذى
Imam Ali (AS) obeyed the orders of the Prophet (SAWA) in not fighting. He had no aim but preserving Islam for the all coming generations and not letting the evil acts of some persons cause damage to the Message which was sent to guide the whole human beings all the time.
He said: I will remain peaceful as far as Islam safe and injustice is on me and my family.
The attack on the house of Fatima Zahra (AS) has been admitted by leading Sunni leaders including Abu Bakr himself who openly said when he was about to die that I wish that I did not attack the house of Fatima even if it was a center of war against me. This is narrated by eminent Sunni scholars like:
1. Al-Tabarani in al-Mo'jam al-Kabeer ,
2. al-Dhahabi in Meesan al-E'tidaal,
3. Ibn Qutaiba and quoted by Ibn A'bd Rabbih in his book al-E'qd al-Fareed.
4. al-Mas'oodi in amorous al-Dhahab.
5. Ibn Asaakir in Tareekh Dimishq.
6. al-Haithami in Majma' al-Zawaa'id.
7. al-Soyouti in Musnad Fatimah
8. al-Muttaqi al-Hindi in Kanz al-Ummaal.
Beside this, we have hundreds of Sunni books who narrated about the attack and fire to burn the house or door of Fatimah e.g.
1. Tareekh al-Tabari , V.2, P. 443.
2. Mussannaf Abi Shaibah, V. 8, P. 572.
3. al-E'qd al-Fareed , V.2, P. 73.
4. Ibn Abd al-Barr in al-Estee'aab, V. 1, P. 298.
5. al-Waafi bil Wafayaat by al-Safari, V.2, P.227.
6. Kanzul Ummah , V.5, P.651.
7. Abul-Fidaa' in al-Mukhtasar Fi aakhbaar al- Bashar, V.1, P.107.
8. Ibn Taymiyyah (the staunch enemy of Ahlul Bayt) in his book Minhajul Sunnah, V.8, P. 291.
9.Ibn Hajar al-A'sqalani in Lisaan al-Mizan, V.1, P.111.
10. al-Dhahbi in Milan al-E'tidaal, V.1, P. 139 and in Siyar A'laam al-Nubalaa', V. 15, P. 578.
11. Al-Tabarani in al-Mo'jam al-Kabeer , V.1, P. 17.
12, Al-Haithami on Mo'jam al-Zawaa'id, V.2, P. 353.
and many other Sunni sources.
The shrine of Sakina is in Dariyya near Damascus. It has been reconstructed recently by Allama Sayyed Ahmad al-Wahedi who has compiled number of narrations supporting that Sakina was a daughter of Imam Ali (AS) and Fatima (AS) including:
1. A narration in Mustadrak Safeenatul Bihar by al-Namazi, vol.5 , p.90 in which imam Zainul Abideen (AS) narrated from Sakina about the greatness of Fatimah (AS).
2. In Amaali al-Tousi a narration from Imam Husain (AS) mentioning Sakina his my sister (Wasa'il al-Shia by al-Hurr al-'Aamili , v. 14, p.168).
3. In Biharul Anwaar (v.45, p.104), a narration that Ameerul Mo'mineen (AS) called all his children by their names to say fair well to their mother Fatimah (AS) before her burial and mentioned Sakina among them.