Al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī ibn Abi Talib (ٱلْحُسَيْن ابْن عَلِي ابْن أَبِي طَالِب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680; also transliterated as Husayn ibn Ali, Husain, Hussain and Hussein) was a grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam) and Muhammad's daughter Fatimah. He is an important figure in Islam as he was a member of the Bayt (Household) of Muhammad and the Ahl al-Kisā' (People of the Cloak), as well as the third Shia Imam.
Allah (SWT) does not enforce justice in this life stopping people from doing wrong, but He gives freedom and leaves human beings to select their own options, whether good or bad, although He guides and helps them to do good, that is why He did not stop Cane from killing his brother Able and did not stop the criminals who killed prophets like Yahya (AS) and did not stop Ibn Muljam from killing Imam Ali (AS). That is the Justice of Allah which gives every one the result of his own actions.
Traditionally, it is said that Sukayna bint al-Husayn and Ruqayyah bint al-Husayn were 2 daughters of Imam Husayn who were present in Karbala. (In some cultures, they are treated as one and called "Sakina").
From a historical perspective, it can be deduced from historical reports that Sukayna bint al-Husayn was a young woman (maybe about 13 years old) at the time of Karbala, and that this is the same Sukayna bint al-Husayn who was mentioned in later historical sources. Also, in a poem ascribed to Imam Husayn to comfort her, he refers to her as the "best of women" (that is, she wouldn't have been a young child or else he wouldn't have called her a "woman"):
سيطول بعدي يا سكينة! فاعلمي * منك البكاء إذا الحمام دهاني لا تحرقي قلبي بدمعك حسرة * ما دام مني الروح في جثماني وإذا قتلت فأنت أولى بالذي * تأتينه يا خيرة النسوان
"O, my dear Sukayna! Know that after me your weeping is prolonged. [So my daughter] do not burn my heart by your sorrowful tears as long as I am alive. O, the best of women! Weeping is more suitable for you after my martyrdom."
It is said that Ruqayyah was about 3 years old in Karbala, that she died when Yazid sent her the head of her father, and that her shrine is in Syria. However, historical reports about her are scant. Maybe people in those days didn't consider it too important to keep records about young children as children often did not live past childhood.
We find in many narrations that Imam Hussain (a.s) had many daughters named Fatimah,
1. One is the eldest Fatima of the daughters of Imam Hussain (a.s). She was the daughter who was given an important document by her father Imam Hussain (a.s) was he was going for martyrdom on the day of Ashura. She gave what was given to her to Imam Ali ibn Hussain Zainul Abideen (a.s). This is mentioned in al-Kafi (volume 1, page 303).
2. Another daughter is Fatima bint al-Hussain, who was the wife of al-Hasan al-Muthanna, who is son of Imam Hasan (a.s) and her mother is Umm Isaaq. She was a very pious and very learned lady, who has also narrated many narrations in our books.
She was in Karbala, and was arrested by the enemies and the narration of her suffering is mentioned in Amaali al-Sadooq (page 227).
She gave a sermon which is mentioned in many books. It was narrated by al-Tabrisi in his book al-Ehtijaj (volume 2, page 27).
This Fatima bint Hussain narrated from Asmaa' bint Umais the narration of 'Radd ash Shams' - the return of the sun for Amir al-Mumineen (a.s), as it is mentioned in the book of Sheikh al-Sadooq, Man la Yahdaruhul Faqih (volume 4, page 439).
She was the Daughter of Imam Hussain (a.s) who had the incident in Shaam (Syria) when one of the people of Shaam asked Yazeed to give him
It is mentioned in Kitab al-Irshad by Sheikh al-Mufid (volume 2, page 121). In Basar al-Darajat by al-Saffar (page 205), it is mentioned that this lady (i.e, Fatima) had some important items from the Prophet Muhammad (saw), and also it is in the book al-Iqbal by ibn Tawoos (volume 3, page 86) that her father Imam Hussain (a.s) informed her about what will happen to some of her children.
3. Another daughter of Imam Hussain (a.s) is Fatima al-Aleela who was left in Madina al Munawara because she was not well.
Allama al-Majlisi in Bihar ul Anwar, al-Khawarizmi (Sunni scholar), ibn Asaaqir (Sunni scholar) and ibn al-Adeem (Sunni scholar) all narrated a narration to al-Mufaddal bin Omer al-Juffi from Imam al-Sadiq (a.s) who received it from his father Imam al-Baqir (a.s), who received it from his father Imam Ali ibn Hussain Zainul Abideen (a.s) that when Imam Hussain (a.s) was killed in Karbala, Ghurab (the black bird) came from Karbala to Madina with some of the blood of Imam Hussain (a.s) and went on the wall of the house where Fatima bint Hussain was. When she saw the bird with the blood, she started crying on her father.
This is mentioned in Bihar al Anwar (volume 45, page 172), in Tarikh Madina Dimishq by ibn Asaakir (volume 70, page 24), in al-Talab fi Tarikh Hallab by ibn al-Adeem (volume 6, page 2647) and in al-Hussain by al-Khawarizmi (chapter 12).
This is some of what we have now about Fatima al-Aleela (a.s).
It is not strongly established historically that Imam Husayn (A) had a daughter named Fatimah who stayed in Medina when he was travelling due to illness. For instance, al-Shaykh al-Mufid only mentions one Fatimah who was born to Imam Husayn (A) who was reported to have been in Karbala.
Of course, it is certainly possible that this happened especially because historians do not usually not mention everything about young children, and I don't personally feel there is any harm in discussing it in majalis despite the absence of sources from the angle that it could have happened, or it is said to have happened.
However, Bihar al-Anwar does include a report saying that Imam Husayn (A) had a daughter named Fatimah (and she was al-Sughra, the younger) who stayed in Medina. It does not say why she stayed. However it says that a crow came to her with the blood of Imam Husayn (A) (vol 45 / p 171).
Anyway, history is a complicated and murky subject. We should not be surprised that there is little information about some things; rather, we should be surprised that after so many years we have so much!
God knows best.
A good book to read on this is The Succession to Muhammad [s] by Wilferd Madelung, who explains very clearly the subtleties of the political situation of 'Uthman. 'Uthman had incited fury among Egyptians, Kufans and others because of his nepotism and awarding his family property that belonged to the umma. He had also cut 'Aisha's stipend, angering her. The Egyptians came as a delegation to 'Uthman with their grievances, but he refused to listen to them. Instead, he appealed to Imam Ali (as) to tell them to go away. Imam 'Ali (as) warned 'Uthman more than once that in order to calm the situation, he must listen to their grievances and correct his actions. 'Uthman refused to listen, and so Imam 'Ali (as) distanced himself. 'A'isha sent out letters inciting those who were angry with 'Uthman to kill him. 'Uthman's palace was stormed. Interestingly, 'Uthman was abandoned by his cousin Marwan and his sons in his time of need. Imam 'Ali (as) sent just Imam Hasan (as) (not Imam Husayn) and some others to try to calm the crowds, but they went ahead and killed 'Uthman. Because Imam 'Ali (as) had not directly intervened, Aisha later took advantage of this and accused him of being responsible for 'Uthman's murder. She used this allegation to try to overthrow Imam Ali (as). Imam 'Ali (as) says in sermon 30 in Nahj al-Balagha that both parties were in the wrong: 'Uthman was wrong for misappropriating property and governing badly; and the Egyptians and others were wrong for murdering 'Uthman, basically meaning that the grievances should have been addressed through a legal process: "If I had ordered his assassination I would have been his killer, but if I had prevented others from killing him I would have been his helper... I am putting before you his case. He appropriated wealth and did it badly. You protested against it and committed excesses therein. With Allah lies the real verdict between the appropriator and the protestor.' Thus, in sending Imam Hasan (as) to try to calm the crowds, Imam 'Ali (as) was not actually siding with 'Uthman, nor supporting him, but was rather trying to prevent excessive and unlawful behaviour on behalf of the aggrieved parties.
In Arabic, every one has a name like Husain and a Kunyah like Abu or Aba or Abi. The name of the Prophet (SAWA) is Muhammad and his Kunyah is Abu Qasim. Ameerul Mo'minen (AS) name is Ali and his Kunyah is Abul Hasan. Imam Hasan's Kunyah is Abu Mohammad. mam Husain's Kunyah is Abu Abdillah or Aba Abdillah.
Abu Abdullah means father of Abdullah. Imam Husain had a son named Abdullah.
Many people traveled from Madina with Imam Husain (AS) but their numbers are not exactly known to us because we find in different books of history different numbers.
You can find some details on the website of mam Husain Shrine www.imamhussain.org
as salam alaikum
different sources depict Shimr Ibn Dhil-Jawshan and Sinan Ibn Anas as the killers of Husayn, peace be upon him. It is evident that both played a role in the killing although there may be some variations in the details of various reports. Both were fighting along the army of 'Umar Ibn Sa'd, sent by 'Ubaydullah Ibn Zayd, appointed by Yazid Ibn Mu'awiyah.
With prayers for your success.
We believe that every act of the Infallible is based on the complete wisdom which may not be available to us as our thinking is limited.
The wisdom behind the way of fighting the enemies in Karbala can be to avoid immediate collapse of the camp of Imam Husain (AS) looking at huge numbers of the enemies facing small number of believers.
It can be also to give more chances to the army of the enemies to reconsider their stand.
After all, the whole wisdom of that arrangements is with Imam Husain (AS) which aims definitely to serve the noble aims of Islam.
The tragedy of Ashura' and the martyrdom of the companions and family members of Ahlul Bayt (a.s.) did not extend for a long time, and within this short duration of the battle, the sad event enfolded quickly. Historians do mention the first who was martyred, and the last.
There were also common combating practices, like duel fights, but what made the tragedy more severe was that none of these fighting rituals were observed. In general, it was Imam Husain (a.s.) who granted permission for the companions and members of Ahlul Bayt (a.s) to fight.
And Allah knows best.
The martyrdom of Imam Husain (AS) gave the Muslim Ummah the biggest shock which saved the Ummah from collapse when the rulers (Yazeed and his gangsters) were totally away from the teachings of Islam. Muslim masses could not accept the crime of the killing of the grand son of the Prophet along with his family members including children and imprisonment of the family of the Prophet (SAWA). This greatest shock brought back the sense to the Ummah and was the reason behind hundreds of revolts against tyrant rulers during centuries of the history of Muslims. Imam Husain's martyrdom declared the tyrant rulers as deviants and made the Muslim masses careful when dealing with them.
The martyrdom of Imam Husain (AS) became the guide to his noble value which calls Muslims to be real Muslims and join good and avoid evil. Thousands of scholars, writers, poets were inspired by Imam Husain's martyrdom.
Millions of Muslims all over the world and all over the generations, observe the martyrdom of Imam Husain every year and get spiritually charged to be better Muslims.
Imam Husain's martyrdom has inspired many non Muslims and made them realize the great teachings of justice for which Imam Husain (AS) has sacrificed.
The list of the benefits from Imam Husain' martyrdom will be very long and books can be written on it, but to cut it very short, we need to remember the Prophetic Hadeeth which stated: Husian is from me, and I am from Husain. How the grand father is from his grand son? In fact, he religion of Islam which was sent through the Prophe Muhammad (SAWA), was revived and made everlasting because of Imam Husain (AS).
Reviving Islam is the great benefit not only for all Muslims but for all mankind.
Real love to the Prophet (SAWA) which is supposed to be in the heart of every believer, makes the believers feel sad when remembering sad memories which took place to the Prophet (SAWA and his Holy Progeny Ahlul Bayt (AS). The Prophetic Hadeeth says: No one from you (Muslims) will be a believer, until he feels for me and my progeny more than what feels fo r himself and his family.
Remembering the tragedies of Karbala on Imam Husain (AS) makes the heart of the believer feel deeply sad and grieved. Such deep sadness which is a result of noble feelings, makes the believers shed tears. Such noble feelings do not decrease with time passing but remain alive and warm as far as the love to the Prophet (SAWA) and his Ahlul Bayt (AS) is in the heart.
This is the way of Prophets and their sincere followers as we read in Qur'an. Allah (SWT) ordered the Prophet in Quran to recite on people the details of a tragedy of the pious son of Adam who was killed by his criminal brother. (And recite on them the happenings which took place between the two sons of Adam (Abel and Cain) in truth, when each of them offered a sacrifice, but it was accepted from one of them and not from the other, who said to his brother, I will definitely kill you. His brother replied: Allah accepts only from the pious people, If you extend your hand towards me to kill me, I will never extend my hand towards you to kill you, I fears Allah, The Lord of The Worlds, (Sura 5, verses 27 onwards).
The tragedy of the son of Adam took place thousands of year before the time of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA), yet, Allah (SWT) ordered the Prophet to recite the story on people, which means that the time passing does not decrease the importance and benefits of remembering it.
Mourning the tragedies of Imam Husain (AS) makes us more near to justice and noble values ordered by Allah (SWT) and more far from Satan and satanic thoughts and acts.
We always need to be more purified to become more near to Imam Husain (AS) and his aims which are the aims of Islam.