Umar b. al-Khattab
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب ʻUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE – 3 November 644 CE), was a senior companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was appointed by Abu Bakr to succeed him and occupied the position of caliph till his death.
Imam Ali (AS) was always with the Prophet (SAWA) and he witnessed how some persons led by Umar refused to obey the order of the Prophet (SAWA). Imam Ali (AS) knew their evil intentions when they openly opposed the Prophet (SAWA). The prophetic order to bring writing marerial was not to Imam Ali (AS) but to other companions. The Prophet (SAWA) wanted to write his last will appointing Imam Ali as his successor, and that was the reason of the refusal of Umar and his group to obey the Prophet (SAWA). If he brought it, they will simply deny it and deny the Prophet's other orders and turn against Islam to achieve their evil plans to grasp the government. They have already said about the Prophet (SAWA): the (man) is speaking nonsense إن الرجل ليهجر.
Imam Ali (AS) was always trying to protect Islam and Muslims and never let them fight or leave Islam.
Taraweeh is a Bid'ah created in the year 14 after Hijra by Umar ibn Khttab. Umar himself called it Bid'ah ( Saheeh Bukhari; Hadeeth number1871 and Saheeh Muslim ; Hadeeth number 1219 , and Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal ; Hadeeth number 22944, and a Sunan Abi Dawood; 1143, and al-Mowatta'bby Malik ibn Ana's; 243, and Sunan al-Tirmithi ; 403, Sunan al-Kubba by al-Bayhaqi ; V.7, P. 62 and Saheeh ibn Hibban , V.6, P. 186 and many other Sunni books of Hadeeth).
imam Ali (AS) was always against every Bid'ah. He had clearly refused this practice and condemned it. When he had the government in his hand, he prevented people from Taraweeh and told them that no congregational prayer in Islam but the obligatory prayers but many of them said: It is Sunnah of Umar and we won't leave a Sunnah of Umar.( Al-Kafi 8:58).
Many the battles that were fought during the expansion of the Arab-Muslim empires after the time of the Prophet (S) were the same sort of battles that any other empire or state engages in to look after its political, financial or economic interests, although it is true that, as a side effect, it contributed to the spread of Islam by establishing a ruling class who was Muslim. So, from that angle, there is nothing special about them to make them jihad fi sabil Allah.
However, if someone was fighting in defence or for other selfless reasons, this could be considered jihad, just as it would be considered jihad fi sabil Allah today if I risked my life to defend someone who is under attack.
Perhaps for that reason, there is a dua in al-Sahifah al-Sajjadiyah where Imam Zayn al-Abidin (A) prays for the soldiers on the frontier who are defending the Muslim state against enemies.
Also, even in times of jihad with the Prophet (S), whether or not fighting was counted as jihad was according to intention. For instance, some people might have gone to war for glory or financial gain, and so this is not the same thing as risking their lives or enduring battle solely for the sake of Allah.
Imam Ali (AS) never took part in any matter of the governments of Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman. He did not attend any Juma or Jama'ah with them (Al-Thahabi in Siyar A'laam al- Nubalaa' 9/284.
Valid Jihad must be led or permitted by the Prophet (SAWA) or his real successors.
All Muslims must be grateful to Allah, The Glorious, Who guided them to The True Religion, Islam, and to the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) who conveyed the message of Allah despite all the hardships and difficulties and torture, and to Ahlul Bayt (AS) who preserved the message and kept it intact by their great sacrifices including their lives to defend Islam.
Islam was never spread by sword of governments or armies but by the true evidence.
The governments of the opponents of Ahlul Bayt did everything to prevent Muslims from knowing or following Ahlul Bayt and forced them to follow other sects. That is why you see spread of non Shia sects under the governmental propagation and orders while followers of Ahlul Bayt under pressure and torture. Yes, millions of Muslims who came to know about the true Islam, left those sects and became followers of Ahlul Bayt (AS). Most of Iran was following those sects of those governments away from Ahlul Bayt but after centuries, and by efforts of sincere scholars, they found the real teachings of Ahlul Bayt and followed them. They are grateful to Allah who guided them to the true Islam.
'They are till today many Iranians who follow those sects spread by anti Ahlul Bayt governments. After all, all Muslims following any sect are Muslims.
It is Not true. No marriage took place between Umar and daughter of Imam Ali (AS). Fabricated narrations in this regard have been refuted by authentic evidence. Allama Nassir Husain son of Allama Haamid Husain has written a full book ( إفحام الأعداء والخصوم) in which he has mentioned authentic evidence that the whole story of the claimed marriage was fabricated by the enemies of Ahlul Bayt then mentioned by Ibn Sa'd in his book al-Tabaqaat. Ibn Sa'd was pro Umayyad rulers.
Umar ibn al-Khattab changed during his rule many things in Islam.
1. Athaan: He removed (Hayya Al Khairul 'Amal) from the Athaan of the Prophet (SAWA) and added in the Athaan of morning prayer (Assalatu Khairun Minannawm) which was never in the Athaan of the Prophet. (Al-Muwatta'; 42 and Mussannaf ibn Abi Shaibah; 1/189, Sunan Al-Tirmithi 1/381)
2. Salah: He ordered his people to fold hands during prayers which was never done by the Prophet (SAWA). Shaikh Sayyed Saabiq from Al-Azhar admitted in his book ( Fiqh al-Sunnah) that there no single authentic Hadeeth that the Prophet ever folded his hands during prayers.
3. Fadak: He denied the rights of Fatimah (AS) in Fadak which was gifted to her by the Prophet (SAWA) during his life.
4. Taraweeh: He started a congregational prayer (Taraweeh) which was never done during the time of the Prophet (SAWA). Umar himself admitted that it is Bid'ah ( Saheeh al-Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim). He called it a good Bid'ah.
5. Mut'ah: He banned an Islamic marriage called Mut'ah which was allowed in Quran (4:24) and was practiced during the time of the Prophet and even during the government of Abu Bakr. Umar said: I am banning the Mut'ah which was allowed during the time of the Prophet. (Musnad Ahmad bin Manbal; V.3, P. 304).
These are just few examples and you can find more in the very valuable book (Al-Nass Wal Ejtuhad) by Sayyed Sharafuddin al-Musawi and Peshawar Nights which are available online on many sites e.g. www.aqaed.com. And www.al-Islam.org
First, in this day and age, it is good for us to be thoughtful about how we phrase things. "Liberating" people from Zoroastrianism is rude. Zoroastrianism, like most world religions, has good things and bad things. In any case, it is good to respect people's faith and heritage, especially since Zoroastrianism continues to be practiced today.
Second, describing the conquest of lands by the Muslim Empire as "liberation" can come across the wrong way.
It is true that 'Umar ibn al-Khattab ordered an invasion of the Sassanian Empire which led to the conquest of what is present-day Iran. So, it is more correct to say that he annexed Iran to the Arab-Muslim Empire, and this was one of the factors that led Iran to become a Muslim region.
That being said, military annexation of a region is not the same thing as converting a people to Islam, or even introducing them to Islam. Actual conversion to Islam in conquered lands happened over a span of time. Conversely, Islam spread in many areas, such as Indonesia, where the initial Muslim Empire had no power. There were good and bad points about the conquests of the early Muslim Empire.
Sometimes - in my experience - some of our Sunni brothers and sisters glorify those conquests, perhaps out of respect for the first 3 caliphs, without taking into consideration that they were in fact military conquests which were not dissimilar to the expansion of other empires. Like other military expansions they brought some good and and some difficulty, some people in these areas were (according to what we can glean from historical records) fine with being under Muslim rule or even welcomed it, and some resisted it. Basically it's good to take a more intermediate position, neither to say "Islam spread by the sword and those Muslims are violent!" nor to say "Muslims liberated all the other regions from their former faiths." (In fact, that comes across as quite violent.)
As for who introduced Iran to Islam, why not begin with Salman al-Farsi? And, second, what about the letter that the Prophet (S) sent to the Persian king, inviting him to Islam?
Simple search in Sunni books of Hadeeth leads to the fact that all the three whom you named ran away from the Jihad.
1. Abu Bakr:
Al-Haakim Al-Nisaboori who is one of the well known Sunni scholars narrated in his famous book Al-Mustadrak Alal Saheehayn, Volume 3, Page 37 that Abu Bakr ran away.
In Saheeh Bukhari and Dalaa'l Al-Sidq , V. 1, P.362 and Noor Al-Absaar by Shiblanji, P. 87, you find that Umar ran away.
Ibn Katheer (student of Ibn Yatmiyyah) mentioned in his books Al-Bidayah Wal Nihayah V.4, P. 28 that Uthman ran away.
Many other Muslims have also run away from the battles due to weakness in the faith. Only the firm and strong in faith stood fast and never ran away.
Exposing the hypocrites was declared in Quran by their deeds but not by their names. Same was done by the Prophet (SAWA) who did not expose their names.
The Prophet (SAWA) has clearly stated that many of his companions will change and turn back from right path after him then will be sent to hellfire. (Saheeh Bukhari, Hadeeth number 4259
and Saheeh Bukhari, Hadeeth number 6098,
and Saheeh Bukhari , Hadeeth number 6099,
and Saheeh Bukhari, Hadeeth number 6026,
and Saheeh Bukhari, Hadeeth number 6528.
The habit of folding ( crossing)
hands during Salaah came from non-Muslims (notably Zoroastrians) and wasn’t part of the Salaah of the Holy Prophet (sawa), nor during the government of Abu Baker. However, during the rule of Umer ibn Khattab, when Persia was concurred by Muslims, several prisoners of war were brought from Persia to Madina. They folded their hands in front of Umer, who asked them why they did so. They responded that it was their habit in front of respected people. Umer liked it and decided to keep it in the prayer. Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s) and many of the Sahaba refused this, because no one has the right to change or add or to omit anything from the Salaah, and the Prophet (sawa) had famously said, “Pray as you saw me praying.
Therefore Amir ul Mo’mineen (a.s), his followers (Ammar ibn Yasir, Salman al Farsi, Abu Dhar al Ghifari) and all of his other pious companions continued opening their hands while praying, exactly like the Prophet (s) used to.
In the Sunni school of thought, none of the four leading jurists (Abu Hanifa, Shafi’i, Malik ibn Anas, Ahmad ibn Hanbal) ever said that it was obligatory to fold hands during Salaah, because there was no evidence to support it. Imam Malik even said it was not good to fold hands, and all Malikis thus open their hands in Salaah. A famous Sunni ‘Aalim from Egypt, Sayyid Sabiq, wrote in his book Fiqh as Sunnah: “we do not have even a single authentic Hadith that the Prophet (s) ever folded his hands in the Salaah.
Numerous famous individuals from the Sunni school of thought such as Abdullah ibn Zubayr and Laith bin Saad didn’t fold their hands either. Folding hands in Salaah was therefore not part of Islam, it was brought to Muslims from non Muslims by Umer ibn Khattab.
The challenge when trying to answer questions about history is that all we can rely on is evidence that has come to us (such as texts or archaeological evidence) and often it is not 100% clear what happened.
In any case, there are some texts that say that 'Umar ibn al-Khattab ordered that the line "prayer is better than sleep" be added to the Fajr adhan. For instance, in al-Muwatta' (a prominent early Sunni source), it is said that the mu'adhdhin came to Umar ibn al-Khattab at fajr time and found him sleeping, so he told him, "Prayer is better than sleep" (to tell him to get up), and then 'Umar ibn al-Khattab ordered that it be added to the adhan. (See the relevant chapter in the book on salat in the Muwatta')
However, some people, especially Sunnis, hold a different view.
I think it is reasonable to say that all Muslims who do the adhan try to do the adhan in the way they think is correct and the way the Prophet (S) intended it. Shi'i fiqh does not prescribe "prayer is better than sleep" in the adhan because the dominant Shi'i view is that this is was not how the Prophet (S) instructed Muslims to do it. At the end of the day, Allah judges on intentions, and we do our best to follow the Sunnah!
No government has the right to legalize any act which was committed by any ruler if the act was away from the real teachings of the Prophet ( SAWA).
Muslim governments should follow the real teachings of the Prophet Muhammad and his Holy Progeny who narrated and practices his teachings.