Umar b. al-Khattab
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب ʻUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE – 3 November 644 CE), was a senior companion of the Prophet Muhammad. He was appointed by Abu Bakr to succeed him and occupied the position of caliph till his death.
Imam Ali (AS) has removed the deviations which were created by the previous three rulers of Saqeefah as he clearly declared that they have deliberately changed the Sunnah of the Prophet (SAWA). He removed the discrimination between Arabs againt non Arab Muslims and between Quraish tribe against other tribes etc.
Imam Ali (AS) suffered a lot from the hypocrites and Quraish tribe who were against him and against his reforms. They took the name of Umar as a slogan against Imam Ali (AS). They asked him in the month of Ramadan to appoint for them a person to lead Taraweeh. He clearly said that it is a Bid'ah away from the Sunnah of the Prophet. They insisted and gathered in the Masjid of Kufa. He sent his son Imam Al-Hasan (AS) to stop them from Taraweeh, but they shouted loudly ( WA SUNNATA UMARAAH)(Where is the Sunnah of Umar?). It reached to a critical point of civil disorder among Muslim society. Imam Ali (AS) had no choice but to leave them to do what they want to save the Muslims from turmoil. You can find details in Sunni books like Sharh Al-Nahj by Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed , V. 12, P. 283 and Tareekh Al-Tabari V.4, From page 281 onward.
Shia books like Wasaa'il Al-Shia , V.5 P. 193 has also mentioned some details of this matter.
Umar ibn Al-Khattab is different from Umar ibn Sa'ad. Umar ibn Al-Khattab is the second ruler of Saqeefah after Abu Bakr. Umar Ibn Sa'ad is the leader of the army of Yazeed who killed Imam Husain (AS) and his companions in Karbala.
Yes. It is a fact admitted in main Sunni books that Umar ibn al-Khattab ran away from Uhud and Hunain and Khaibar.
1. Saheeh Al-Bukhari; Hadeeth number 3978 which is very clear that Umar b. Khattab ran away from the battle of Hunain with those who ran away.
2. Saheeh Al-Bukhari, V.5, P.101.
3. Fat-h Al-Bari Fi Shar-h Saheeh Al-Bukhari by Ibn Hajar, V.8, P. 29.
4. Omdatul Qari Fi Shar-h Saheeh Al-Bukhari, V.17, P. 299 .
5. 'Awn Al-Ma'bood , V.7, P. 275.
6. Al-Budayah Wal-Nihayah by Ibn Katheer.
7. Al-Seerah al-Nabawiyyah by Ibn Katheer , V.4, P. 264 and V. 2, P. 89 and V.3, P. 51.
8. Seerat Ibn Hisham, V.2, V. 415.
9. Soyouti in al-Dorr al-Manthour , V. 2, V. 88 narrated from Umar himself how he ran away from the battle of Uhud.
10. Al-Tabari in his Tafseer, V.4, P. 193 narrated from Umar how he ran away from the battle of Uhud and climbed the mountain running like a goat.
11. Kanzul Ummal by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, V. 2, P. 376.
12. Great Sunni books of Tafseer like Al-Fakhr al-Razi (9:51) mentioned this fact.
13. Ibn Asakir in Tareekh Dimashq , V.24, P. 396.
14. Al-Hamawi in Mo'jam al-Boldan , V.4, P. 173.
15. Al-Salihi al-Shami in Sobol al-Huda , V.4, P. 206.
16. Al-Waqidi as narrated by Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, V. 15, P. 22.
17. Al-Haakim al-Nisabouri in al-Mustadrak 'ALAL-Saheehain, V.3, P. 40.
18. Al-Mussannaf by Ibn Abi Shaibah, V.7, P. 396.
19. Al-Albani Nasser , the well known Wahabi Shaikh in his book Erwaa' al-Ghaleel, V.5, P. 53.
20. Majma' al-Zawaa'id by al Haithami, V.6, P. 136.
Yes. Hijri (Islamic) calender never started from Muharram because Hijra of the Prophet (SAWA) started in Rabiul Awwal and not in Muharram. Muharram was the start of the year of pagan Arabs before Islam. Umar ibn Al-Khattar was the first who brought it among Muslims.
Islam does not force people to believe in it. No compulsion in religion. Majority of people in Iran embraced Islam willingly when they saw the great teachings of IIslam. Many Zoroastrians remained in their inherited faith till today. No one has forced any one to become a Muslim.
Yes he and his group and many companions knew that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) had ordered Imam Ali (AS) not to fight against those who will deviate from his orders and grab his right. That is why Umar and his group did what they did against Ahlul Bayt (AS).
Imam Ali (AS) was always with the Prophet (SAWA) and he witnessed how some persons led by Umar refused to obey the order of the Prophet (SAWA). Imam Ali (AS) knew their evil intentions when they openly opposed the Prophet (SAWA). The prophetic order to bring writing marerial was not to Imam Ali (AS) but to other companions. The Prophet (SAWA) wanted to write his last will appointing Imam Ali as his successor, and that was the reason of the refusal of Umar and his group to obey the Prophet (SAWA). If he brought it, they will simply deny it and deny the Prophet's other orders and turn against Islam to achieve their evil plans to grasp the government. They have already said about the Prophet (SAWA): the (man) is speaking nonsense إن الرجل ليهجر.
Imam Ali (AS) was always trying to protect Islam and Muslims and never let them fight or leave Islam.
Taraweeh is a Bid'ah created in the year 14 after Hijra by Umar ibn Khttab. Umar himself called it Bid'ah ( Saheeh Bukhari; Hadeeth number1871 and Saheeh Muslim ; Hadeeth number 1219 , and Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal ; Hadeeth number 22944, and a Sunan Abi Dawood; 1143, and al-Mowatta'bby Malik ibn Ana's; 243, and Sunan al-Tirmithi ; 403, Sunan al-Kubba by al-Bayhaqi ; V.7, P. 62 and Saheeh ibn Hibban , V.6, P. 186 and many other Sunni books of Hadeeth).
imam Ali (AS) was always against every Bid'ah. He had clearly refused this practice and condemned it. When he had the government in his hand, he prevented people from Taraweeh and told them that no congregational prayer in Islam but the obligatory prayers but many of them said: It is Sunnah of Umar and we won't leave a Sunnah of Umar.( Al-Kafi 8:58).
Many the battles that were fought during the expansion of the Arab-Muslim empires after the time of the Prophet (S) were the same sort of battles that any other empire or state engages in to look after its political, financial or economic interests, although it is true that, as a side effect, it contributed to the spread of Islam by establishing a ruling class who was Muslim. So, from that angle, there is nothing special about them to make them jihad fi sabil Allah.
However, if someone was fighting in defence or for other selfless reasons, this could be considered jihad, just as it would be considered jihad fi sabil Allah today if I risked my life to defend someone who is under attack.
Perhaps for that reason, there is a dua in al-Sahifah al-Sajjadiyah where Imam Zayn al-Abidin (A) prays for the soldiers on the frontier who are defending the Muslim state against enemies.
Also, even in times of jihad with the Prophet (S), whether or not fighting was counted as jihad was according to intention. For instance, some people might have gone to war for glory or financial gain, and so this is not the same thing as risking their lives or enduring battle solely for the sake of Allah.
Imam Ali (AS) never took part in any matter of the governments of Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman. He did not attend any Juma or Jama'ah with them (Al-Thahabi in Siyar A'laam al- Nubalaa' 9/284.
Valid Jihad must be led or permitted by the Prophet (SAWA) or his real successors.
All Muslims must be grateful to Allah, The Glorious, Who guided them to The True Religion, Islam, and to the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) who conveyed the message of Allah despite all the hardships and difficulties and torture, and to Ahlul Bayt (AS) who preserved the message and kept it intact by their great sacrifices including their lives to defend Islam.
Islam was never spread by sword of governments or armies but by the true evidence.
The governments of the opponents of Ahlul Bayt did everything to prevent Muslims from knowing or following Ahlul Bayt and forced them to follow other sects. That is why you see spread of non Shia sects under the governmental propagation and orders while followers of Ahlul Bayt under pressure and torture. Yes, millions of Muslims who came to know about the true Islam, left those sects and became followers of Ahlul Bayt (AS). Most of Iran was following those sects of those governments away from Ahlul Bayt but after centuries, and by efforts of sincere scholars, they found the real teachings of Ahlul Bayt and followed them. They are grateful to Allah who guided them to the true Islam.
'They are till today many Iranians who follow those sects spread by anti Ahlul Bayt governments. After all, all Muslims following any sect are Muslims.
It is Not true. No marriage took place between Umar and daughter of Imam Ali (AS). Fabricated narrations in this regard have been refuted by authentic evidence. Allama Nassir Husain son of Allama Haamid Husain has written a full book ( إفحام الأعداء والخصوم) in which he has mentioned authentic evidence that the whole story of the claimed marriage was fabricated by the enemies of Ahlul Bayt then mentioned by Ibn Sa'd in his book al-Tabaqaat. Ibn Sa'd was pro Umayyad rulers.