There are many aspects of these verses that one could discuss. However, it seems that you may be asking, "Why did Allah ask the angels to prostrate to Adam"?
Common viewpoints are:
(a) this is because of the potential of the human being (of which Adam is the archetype) to overcome their animalistic desires and develop the soul, and thereby excel the angels,
(b) this is because of the role of the human being as khalifah on earth
(c) this is because the Prophet (S), Fatimah al-Zahra (A), and the Imams (A) would be descended from Adam
(d) this was to demonstrate the obedience and humility of the angels before Allah,
(e) this was because many angels have been placed at the service of human beings (for instance, as recording angels),
or (f) this was to test Iblis, who, before that, appeared to be an excellent worshipper; we learn a big lesson from this.
In my view, all the above interpretations are accurate and correct - one does not rule out the other.
You might also be asking, "What does it mean for Allah to blow some of His spirit into the human being?"
Obviously this is not meant to be taken literally (Allah is not a material being with a separate soul).
However what can be said is that Allah instilled the human being with a divine spark that gave the human being qualities such as life, sentience, intellect, curiosity, understanding, artistry, the capability for speech, etc, and that these qualities are earthly reflections of various aspects of the divine. This makes the human being a special and sacred creation and gives the human being a special potential.