Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) was very patient and he always tried to control his anger. Historians have given many examples of his patience:
a.) The Imam (‘a) owned a female slave who poured water on his hands for him whilst he made ablution. One day, while she was thus pouring water, the vessel slipped from her hands and hit the Imam’s (‘a) face, injuring him. She recited a verse of the holy Qur’an: "Those who spend in ease and adversity, and suppress their anger…" The Imam (‘a) said: "I overcame my anger." When she heard this, she wanted to ask for something more, so she recited another verse: "...and excuse the faults of the people." The Imam (‘a) said: "May Allah forgive you." Then she completed the verse: "...and Allah loves the virtuous." The Imam (‘a) replied: "You are free to go."1
b.) One day an unpleasant person abused the Imam (‘a). He said: "I am abusing you!" The Imam (‘a) replied: "And I have turned my face from you." In this way, the Imam (‘a) prevented a similar reaction, and left the place.2
c.) Another example of the Imam’s (‘a) patience is in the case of a person who accused and vehemently abused the Imam (‘a). The Imam (‘a) said to him: "If we are really what you said, then we will seek Allah to forgive us; and if we are not really what you say, then may Allah bless you!"3
All the historians believe that Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) was the most generous person of his time, and he always provided the needy with their basic requirements.
There are numerous stories told about his generosity:
a.) Muhammad Ibn Usama felt ill. The Imam (‘a) visited him. When the Imam (‘a) sat there, Muhammad started crying. The Imam (‘a) said to him: "How much money do you have to pay?" He said: "Fifteen thousand Dinars." The Imam (‘a) said: "I will pay your debts." After saying this, he paid the said debts and then left.4
b.) To understand his generosity, we must be aware that every noon, the poor were given food at his home.5
c.) Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) discreetly provided daily needs for one hundred families.6
The Imam (‘a) would sit with the poor, trying his best not to hurt their feelings in any way. When he gave something to a needy person he would kiss him so that the one in need or the beggar felt no insult.7
When a beggar came to him to ask for help, the Imam (‘a) would say: "Welcome! Oh one who will help me to carry my luggage on the Day of Judgement! "8
He was so kind to those in need and became very happy to see the needy, orphans and the poor in general gathering around his tablecloth to eat. He would prepare and deliver the morsels to their mouths with his own hands.9
At night, he would load food and wood for fuel on his back and take them to their houses. He did not like the crop to be cut at night because it would deprive workers of their rights. Whenever such things happened he would forbid the doer, saying that the Holy Prophet (S) forbade this act, explaining: "The bunch of dates which is given to a needy person is the same thing which has been mentioned in the Qur’an to be given to a needy person on the day of cutting crops."10
The Imam (‘a) forbade people from frightening beggars away, because such an act would cause their daily bread to decrease as well as incur the wrath of Allah. There are a number of ahadith quoted by him in which he mentioned the same thing.
Abu Hamzah Ath-Thumali says: "One day I offered my morning prayers in the companionship of Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a). After having offered our prayers, we went to his home. He called his slave girl, whose name was Sakina, and said: "Today is Friday and you will not scare off any beggar without giving him some food." Abu Hamzah said: "But not every person who appears in the form of beggar really is one." The Imam (‘a) replied: "It is also possible that I misjudge and may frighten away someone really needy, thinking that he is not, and then Allah Almighty will curse us (the people of Holy Household) as he did Jacob (the Prophet (‘a) and his household).
Every day, Jacob slaughtered a sheep for himself and his family. One Friday, someone appeared and asked him and his family for some food, but they did not give him any as they thought he was lying and was not a genuine beggar. The person said: "Please give me some food out of the food that you have left over," but no one cared about his words. The beggar passed that night in hunger, while Jacob’s household slept during the night with their stomachs full and with some food still in excess.
The next morning there was an inspiration saying: “you oppressed my servant and thus made me curse you and your sons. O Jacob! From amongst my Prophets, only those are favourites near me who bless my poor servants; the ones who bring the poor near them and fill their stomachs. O Jacob! Why did you not feel pity for my servant who was very good at worshipping me and who was content with what I have given him. I swear upon My Honour that I will make you and your sons suffer."
Abu Hamzah asked: "When did Yousuf dream his famous dream?" the Imam (‘a) replied: "On the same night when Jacob and his family slept with their stomachs filled and the beggar, with his empty stomach."11
Another thing which was very important to the Imam (‘a) was to give charity to the poor in order to make their lives less difficult. The Imam (‘a) also proposed that other people do so, as this act is favourable in the court of Allah.
He said: "He who gives charity to a needy one will be rewarded with accepted prayers, which the poor does for him”.12
Here we mention some of the Imam’s (‘a) favourite qualities regarding giving charity:
The Imam (‘a) wore a kaftan made of fur in the winter season, while during summer, he wore an Egyptian garment and towards the end of summer or winter, he would give his clothes as charity for Allah. Or he would sell his second hand clothes and distribute the money as charity amongst the needy.13
He said: "I feel ashamed in front of my Allah to even think about selling my clothing and using the received money for my personal use."14
Imam (‘a) would give almond and sugar as charity. When he was approached about this, he recited the following verse of the holy Qur’an:
"You will never attain piety until you spend out of what you hold dear, and whatever you may spend of anything, Allah indeed knows it."15
It has been narrated that he liked grapes. One day Imam (‘a) was fasting. When, in the afternoon he wanted to break his fast, his maid brought a bunch of grapes for him. The Imam (‘a) wanted to eat the grapes, but at the same time, a destitute person came and asked him for something to eat.
The Imam (‘a) gave the bunch of the grapes to him. The maid sent someone and asked the person to sell his grapes. When the grapes were brought back in front of the Imam (‘a), another poor person came and asked for food. Once again, the Imam (‘a) gave his food to the needy one.
The maid once again sent someone to buy the grapes from the poor person, but when the Imam (‘a) wanted to eat them, another poor hungry person appeared from somewhere asking for food. For the third time, the Imam (‘a) gave the bunch of grapes to the needy person without eating anything out of it.16
Twice the Imam (‘a) divided his properties and, after keeping the first part, he distributed the second part among the poor and needy.17
The most favourite act of Imam (‘a) was to give charity in secret without anyone knowing about it. Imam (‘a) wanted not to be seen while providing poor people with their basic needs. By doing so, he tried to develop a strong relationship between himself and the poor Muslims, as well as achieve the happiness of Allah; he, also, wished to develop an Islamic society on the basis of brotherhood and mutual love and asked people to do so. He said: "Secret charity will pour water on the burning fire of Allah’s wrath."18
Needy people had become used to the Imam’s (‘a) charity and when night fell, they came out of their houses and waited for him to come and bring them their daily needs. When they saw the Imam (‘a) coming, they exclaimed with joy and told each other: "The person with food on his back is coming (the sack man)." They referred to the Imam (‘a) by this name, because they did not know who he was.19
Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) had a poor cousin and it was in the Imam’s (‘a) manner to give him money after each night. The person, not recognizing him, used to curse Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) and accused him of never helping him. The Imam (‘a) continued giving his cousin money without saying a word in response to the offensive allegations and never revealing his true identity as the man’s cousin. When the Imam (‘a) died, his generous visits were missed and the cousin realized that the charitable man had been none other than his own cousin! He would then come to his grave crying and mourning and asking for forgiveness.20
Ibn ‘Aisha narrated: that the Madinah people said: "They missed the secret donations of charity (Sadakah) when Imam ‘Ali Ibn Al-Husayn died."21
Imam Zayn Al-’Abidin was very secretive in his prayers and in giving charity, covering his face when doing so, so as to conceal his identity.22
Thahaby narrated: "He was very generous in giving charity in secret."23
He used to put the food in a sack and lift it on his back and distribute it amongst the poor and needy. Carrying the heavy load would leave marks on his back.24
The Imam (‘a) never looked for anything in return for his help and charitable acts. His mercy to others was shown from the scruffiness of his own materials.
Sofian Ibn Ayaynah narrated from Zahry, one of the companions of Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a): "I saw that the Imam was carrying a bag of flour. It was very cold. I went to him and said; O son of the Prophet (S) what’s this? He answered; "I decided to go to travel and I’m carrying the needs to a safe place."
Zahry said; "My servant will carry it for you" but the Imam (‘a) rejected the offer. Zahry begged that he, himself, would carry the bag but the Imam (‘a) insisted on his decision and stated; "No one except me can carry what are the causes to save me in this travel and pave my way to my aim. Please let me do my job and go your way."
Zahry returned and, after some days, saw the Imam (‘a), so he thought he had gone on his trip. He asked, "O son of the Prophet (S), I don’t see any signs from that trip in you!" The Imam (‘a) answered, "Zahry that journey was not the way you imagined; it is death, for which I’m preparing myself showing mercy and righteousness, trying to avoid doing the Moharamat; all preparation for death."25
One of Imam Zayn Al-’Abidin’s (‘a) features was having glory of spirit, something which he inherited from his esteemed father, Imam Husayn (‘a), who said to the powerful oppressors of his time, "I swear to Allah, I will not give my hand to you like inferiors and I will not obey you like servants."26
His unique character is illustrated in his saying: "I don’t like to have red haired camels because of my inferiors."27
These are his sayings on the glory of spirit and whoever knew him ascertained that the world would be worthless to him.28
This statement is based upon historic accounts: at the time of Walid Ibn Abdulmalek, a government official stole something from the Imam. When, at the time of Hajj, Walid came to Makkah, he told the Imam to question him concerning his missing property. The Imam (‘a) stated this everlasting sentence, "Fie on you here in front of the house of Allah! You want me to ask someone for a material object? I feel apologetic to ask for resources and for anything from the material world from Allah, Himself, so, how can I ask for something from someone who is a creature of Allah."29
This example exemplifies his glory, showing that he never earned a penny solely on account of his relationship to the Prophet (S).30
He was the most austere in his time. When they asked Zahry: who is the most austere? He answered: "‘Ali Ibn Husayn (‘a)."31
He once saw a poor man crying. He felt sympathy for him and said: "If the entire world was in this man’s hand and was lost all at once, it would not be more important than his crying."32
Sa’id Ibn Mosayeb says: "‘Ali Ibn Husayn (‘a) was preaching to the people in the Prophet’s (S) mosque everyday with these exact words memorized and written. He encouraged people to dislike this world and try to gain the other world.
These are the exact words:
"O people! Look for divine piety. Remember you will return to Him. You, the son of Adam, what is the fastest thing coming towards you and it is so close to catching you. It is death. Maybe right now it’s the end of your life and the Angel of Death will drag your soul from your body and people will put you alone in your grave, then your soul will return to your body there in the grave. Then Nakir and Monkar, two angels that come to ask you questions, will come to you. So you, the servants of Allah have Taqwa of Allah (be scared) and know that Allah doesn’t like the beauty and jewellery of the world for his best chosen men, but he has created the world and all the human beings therein just to examine them, to see who will have the best actions for his next world.”
“I swear by Allah that He has clarified everything in His book for you and has brought clear signs to whosoever thinks, and no power is out of Allah’s hand. Then, when Allah orders you to have glory in your life in this world, take it! Do not get close to this world like those who consider it his eternal home. This world is just a method of passing to the next world. Therefore, before scattering from here and finishing the last days of your life, catch your needs from righteous actions. May Allah make you and us from the ascetic, concerning the jewellery or decorations of the world, so that the relevant courage is about the next world, which is constant and eternal.”33
Having supplication and prayers to Allah in his life and his personality is clear from his fame as Zayn Al-’Abidin. Al-Sahiffa Al-Sajjadiyyah prayers are another sign of this issue, and a quick glance at the title of these prayers will tell you the result of sheltering with Allah. We see in the Ibn Tawos fi Al-lahuf fi qatla Al-Tuffof that there is no work from Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a); he has prayed and supplicated with these prayers before Allah and it is just a possibility that these prayers are from him.
Imam Al-Sajjad was subdued in front of the Holiness of Allah and was of the highest purity. This is clear from all his movements and actions. They say: "Once Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) passed a man sitting at the door of a rich man. He asked him, "What made you sit near this oppressor?" He replied: "Poverty." The Imam (‘a) stated: "Let me take you to the door of someone who is the best for you," then took him to the mosque of the Prophet (S) and taught him some instructions for prayers and reading the Qur’an, in asking Allah to supply his needs."34
Imam Zayn Al-’Abidin (‘a), in interacting with his household, was of the most compassionate and did not want anything besides this. He is quoted as saying: "If my family likes to have meat and I have enough money, it is better for me to buy meat than to buy a slave and release him."35
Imam Al-Sajjad would leave for work early in the morning in order to provide sustenance for his family. One day a man asked him where he was going. He replied "I am about to give charity to my family." The man questioned him, saying: "Give them charity?" to which the Imam Al-Sajjad replied: "Indeed, when I struggle to earn halal money, to secure a decent standard of life for my family, it is seen as being a charity to them for the sake of Almighty Allah."36
The Imam used to help his family with household chores, and never asked anyone to assist him with his own personal duties, particularly those in regards to worship.
Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) replied with complete kindness and with the utmost effort, in a superlative fashion when speaking with his mother. One of the best actions he did was never to dine together with his mother at the same spread.
A number of people criticized him for this, saying: "You are the best in good actions and the highest in love for family; why don’t you eat with your mother?" He replied with such a manner of politeness, equal to no one in recorded history: "I am afraid I will take the morsel that my mother was going to take and that action would be excessive impoliteness on my part."37
Another beneficent thing he did for his parents was praying for them and that is one of the best goals in Islamic behaviour. This is a part of his prayer:
"And single them out for the best of Thy blessings, Thy mercy,
Thy benedictions, and Thy peace!
And single out my parents, O God,
For honour with Thee and blessings from Thee,
O Most Merciful of the merciful!
Bless Muhammad and his Household,
Teach me through inspiration,
Knowledge of everything incumbent upon me toward them,
And gather within me,
Knowledge of all that, completely!
Then make me act in accordance,
With what Thou hast inspired me,
And give me success to put into practice,
The knowledge Thou hast shown to me;
Lest I fail to act.
According to something Thou hast taught me,
Or my limbs feel too heavy to perform,
That with which Thou hast inspired me!
Bless Muhammad and his Household,
As Thou hast ennobled us through him,
And bless Muhammad and his Household,
As Thou hast made incumbent upon us,
Rights toward the creatures because of him!
Fill me with awe of my parents,
The awe one has toward a tyrannical sovereign,
And let me be devoted to them,
With the devotion of a compassionate mother!
Make my obedience and devotion to them,
More gladdening to my eyes,
Than sleep to the drowsy,
And more refreshing to my breast,
Than drink to the thirsty,
So that I may prefer their inclination,
To my inclination,
Set their satisfaction,
Before my satisfaction,
Make much of their devotion to me,
Though it be little,
And make little my devotion to them,
Though it be great.
Lower before them my voice,
Make agreeable to them my words,
Make mild before them my temper,
Make tender toward them my heart,
And turn me into their kind companion,
Their loving friend!
Thank them for my upbringing,
Reward them for honouring me,
And guard them as they guarded me in my infancy!
And whatever harm has touched them from me,
Detested thing has reached them from me,
Or right of theirs which has been neglected by me,
Allow it to alleviate their sins,
Raise them in their degrees,
And add to their good deeds!
O, He who changes evil deeds into manifold good deeds!38
He nurtured his own children with the best upbringing, teaching them the best Islamic principles, thus illustrating his excellent attitude and dedication towards advancement. His children greatly benefited by his guidance, becoming the best and most glorious of men in theology, literary studies and scientific knowledge, and also participating in Jihad in Islamic history.
His son, Muhammad Al-Baqir, was one of the most famous Muslim Imams and the most learned and knowledgeable in the field of science.
Another of his sons, Abdullah, the glorious, was also considered to be a most excellent Muslim scientist and his expansive knowledge was regarded to be of the highest ranks in this field.
Yet another son, Zaid Ibn ‘Ali, was one of the highest in status amongst Muslim scientists, and was the most knowledgeable in Fiqh, Islamic tradition (Hadith, translation of the Quran and the science of theology). He led the oppressed people in a bloody revolution against the oppressors in the Islamic society. This revolution, which is known as the Zaid Ibn ‘Ali revolution, roused political awareness in Islamic society and was central to the fall of the Omayyad dynasty.39
Imam Al-Sajjad, cultivated his sons’ development with the best advice and established rules and methods, which sustained them throughout their lives.
Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) said:
"O son, do not associate, talk, or accompany five classes of people." "Who are they, father?" asked the son, to which the Imam (‘a) answered:
"Beware of associating with the liar, for he is as same as a mirage: he shows you the near as remote and shows you the remote as near. Beware of associating with the sinful, for he will disappoint you for a single bite or even something less valuable. Beware of associating with the stingy, for he will let you down when you are in urgent need of his property. Beware of associating with the foolish, for he harms you when he intends to do you favour. Beware of associating with the one disregardful of his relatives, for I found him cursed in the Book of Allah."40
He said: "O Son, be patient on bad occasions, and don’t take what is not for you, and don’t answer or help your brother for those events which will be worse for you than it benefits him."41
Imam As- Sajjad (‘a) said to one of his sons: "O son, Allah has accepted me (as a father) for you and is not satisfied with you (as a son) to be disobedient towards me; hence, He has commanded you (to obey me) and has not commanded me (to obey you). The best sons to their fathers are those who, despite their fathers’ shortcomings, continue to show obedience."42
The Imam (‘a) used to be affectionate with them, as he felt mercy and love for them, as if they were his own sons. They received affection from him, to the extent that they had never received from their parents. He was known to never punish a servant or slave- girl, if ever they committed an error.43
It has been narrated that he had a slave who, on one occasion, failed to respond to him despite having been summoned many times. When he approached him, asking: "O son, I have called you many times, why did not you answer?" the servant replied: "Indeed, I heard you!" "So why didn’t you come?" asked the Imam (‘a). The slave answered: "I wasn’t frightened of you, as I knew that you wouldn’t punish me." The Imam (‘a) left, whispering to His Lord: "O God, thank you, my servant does not fear me!"44
- 1. Amali Al-Saduq p. 168 Hadith 12; Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid, Kitab Al-Irshad 2/146; Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib 4/157; Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh Madinat Dimashq 36/155; Mukhtasar Ibn Manzur 17/240; Sair A'alam Al-Nubala 4/39; Nihayat Al-Arab 21/326.
- 2. Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib 4/171; Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wa’l-Nihayah 9/105.
- 3. Shaykh Al-Mufid, Kitab Al-Irshad 1/146 taken from Ubaidli Nisabeh, (born in/ 270), in Nasab Ali Ibn Abi Talib.
- 4. Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid, Kitab Al-Irshad 1/146; Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib 4/136; Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wa Al-Nihayah 9/105; Sair-A'alam Al-Nubala 4/239.
- 5. Tarikh Al-Ya’qubi 2/259, Beirut Publications.
- 6. Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib 4/166, narrated by Imam Al-Baqir (‘a) and Ahmed Ibn Hanbal, Kashf Al-Gummah 2/289, taken from Matalib Al-Su'ul from uliyat Al-Awlia. In the same book 2/312 of Jababidhi, the same book 2/304 narrated by Imam Sadiq (‘a) which said that Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) provided the daily needs of seventy families.
- 7. Abu-Nu‛aym's Hilyat Al-Awliya' 3/137; Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib 4/167.
- 8. Al-Irbili, Kashf Al-Ghummah 2/288; taken from Matalib Al-Souol fi Manaqib Al-Rasoul 412; Al-Majlisi, Bihar Al-Anwar 46/98.
- 9. Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib 4/166 and 167 from Imam Al-Baqir (‘a).
- 10. Wasa’il Al-Shi’ah 9/201; Jami' Al-Ahadith Al-Shi'ah 8/141; Al-Majlisi, Bihar Al-Anwar 93/98.
- 11. Shaykh Al-Saduq, ‛Ilal Al-Shara’i 1/61, Beirut Publications.
- 12. Wasa’il Al-Shi’ah 6/296; Jami' Al-Ahadith Al-Shi'ah 8/389; Thawab Al-A‘amal p. 145.
- 13. Ibn Asakir, Tarikh Madinat Dimashq 41/399; Tahdhib Al-Kamal 2/398; Sharh Ihqaq Al-Haqq 28/61.
- 14. Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib 4/167; Taken from ulliyaht Al-Awliya 3/136 to 140; Tahthib Al-Ahkam 2/369, Al-Majlisi, Bihar Al-Anwar 46/106.
- 15. Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib 3/293; Al-Majlisi, Bihar Al-Anwar 46/89; A'yan Al-Shi'ah 1/633.
- 16. Shaykh Al-Kulayni, Al-Kafi 6/350; Al-Mahasin 2/547; with a small difference.
- 17. Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib 4/167; Abu-Nu‛aym's Hilyat Al-Awliya' 3/140; Jamharat Al-Awliya 2/71; Tahthib Al-Kamal p. 231.
- 18. Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib 3/292 from Shamali and thowri; Tathkirat Al-Hufath 1/75; Akhbar Al-Dawl 110; Nihayatal arab 21/326; Al-Irbili, Kashf Al-Ghummah 2/289; taken from Matalib Al-Souol from Abu-Nu‛aym's Hilyat alAwliya', Al-Kashf 2/312; narrated from Janabathi from thowri from Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) who said/ "There is nothing like the charity, extinguish the god's anger."
- 19. Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib 3/293; Sharh Al-Akhbar, 3/254.
- 20. Al-Irbili, Kashf Al-Ghummah 2/319; from Nathr Al-Dorar labi, Al-Majlisi, Bihar Al-Anwar 46/100.
- 21. Hilyat Al-Awliya and about him in Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib 4/166; Kashf Al-Ghummah 2/290; from Matalib Al-Su'ul from Al-iliah 4/136, Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wa’l-Nihayah 9/114; Safwat Al-Safwah 2/45; Al-Ithaf bi-Hubb Al-Ashraf 49; Al-Aghani 15/326.
- 22. Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib 3/293; from Imam Al-Baqir (‘a), Al-Khisal 517.
- 23. Tadhkirat Al-Huffaz 1/75.
- 24. Tarikh Al-Ya`‘qubi 2/303 Beirut edition; Al-Khisal p. 517; Shaykh Al-Saduq, ‛Ilal Al-Shara’i 1/231.
- 25. Shaykh Al-Saduq, ‛Ilal Al-Shara’i 1/231; Wasa’il Al-Shi’ah 9/401; Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib 3/392.
- 26. Tarikh Al-Tabari 4/323; Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wa’l-Nihayah 8/194.
- 27. Shaykh Al-Kulayni, Al-Kafi 2/109 and 111; Al-Khisal, 1/23; Al-Majlisi, Bihar Al-Anwar 71/406.
- 28. Al-Majlisi, Bihar Al-Anwar 75/135.
- 29. Al-Majlisi, Bihar Al-Anwar 46-64, Shaykh Al-Saduq, ‛Ilal Al-Shara’i 230; Beirut Edition
- 30. Majalis Thalab 2/462; Ayat Al-Imam Zayn Al-'Abidin written by Qurashi, 1/81, Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib 4/175; Ibn ‛Asakir, Tarikh Madinat Dimashq 41/277, Tahthib Al-Kamal 2/389.
- 31. Al-Majlisi, Bihar Al-Anwar 42/75; Shaykh Al-Saduq, ‛Ilal Al-Shara’i 230; Beirut Edition
- 32. Al-Irbili, Kashf Al-Ghummah 2/318; quoted from Nathr Al-Dor, Abi and Ibn Al-Sabbagh, Al-Fusul Al-Muhimmah 2/867.
- 33. Shaykh Al-Kulayni, Al-Kafi 8/72-76; Tuhaf Al-’Uqul of Ibn Shu'bah Al-Harrani, 249-252.
- 34. Ayat Imam Zayn Al-’Abidin (‘a) Dirasah wa Tahlil 1/93; Al-Majlisi, Bihar Al-Anwar 88/375; with a slight difference.
- 35. Shaykh Al-Kulayni, Al-Kafi 4/12; Jam’a Ahadith Al-Shi’ah 21/466.
- 36. Shaykh Al-Klayni, Al-Kafi 4/12; Wasa’il Al-Shi’ah 17/67.
- 37. Kamil, Al-Mubarrd 1/302; Shadharat Al-Dhahab 1/105; Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib 4/176 quoted in Amali Nayshaburi, Al-Khisal p. 518 with a little difference.
- 38. Al-Sahifah Al-Sajjadiyyah his Du'a for his parents, p. 128.
- 39. Ayat Imam Zayn Al-’Abidin 55-65.
- 40. Shaykh Al-Kulayni, Al-Kafi 2/377; Tuhaf Al-’Uqul 279.
- 41. Al-Bayan wa Al-Tabyyin 2/76; Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih Al-Andalusi, Al-‘Iqd Al-Farid 3/88; Mustadrak Al-Wasa’il 12/363; Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib 3/302; Tahdhib Al-Kamal 20/399.
- 42. Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih Al-Andalusi, Al-‘Iqd Al-Farid 3/89, Ibn ‛Asakir, Tarikh Madinat Dimashq 19/465 with a slight difference.
- 43. Iqbal Al-A’amal 1/443-445; Al-Majlisi, Bihar Al-Anwar 46/103- 105, 98/186-187.
- 44. Shaykh Al-Mufid, Kitab Al-Irshad 2/147; Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib 3/296; Ibn ‛Asakir, Tarikh Madinat Dimashq 41/387.