Table of Contents

Glossary

A

Aal or Ahlul Bayt Muhammad: Members of the house of the Prophet Muhammad Al-Abbas: one of the uncles of the Prophet Muhammad Abbysinia: Ethiopia an African country Abdul Muttalib: the grandfather of the Prophet Abdul-Rahman Ibn Ouf: one of the early Qureshite companions of the Prophet Muhammad Abdullah: a common name meaning "the servant of God " also the name of the father of the Prophet Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar: a companion who was a son of ‘Umar the second ruler after the Prophet Abdullah Ibn Sarh: one of the hypocrites who adopted Islam out of necessity Abu Bakr: the first elected caliph after the death of the Prophet Abu Huraira: a companion of the Prophet and an excessive reporter Abu Nudrah: one of the companions of the Prophet Ahu Obeidah Ibn al-Jarrah: a relatively early companion Abu Sufyan: father of Muaweyah adopted Islam after a long hostility toward the Prophet

Abu Talib: the outstanding uncle and protector of the Prophet. He is the father of the Iman Ali Abu Tharr: a highly righteous and early companion of the Prophet Al-Ahwaz: a city and a province in Iran Al-Lat: a name of an idol Amina: an adjective which meant safe and a name of the Prophet's mother Ammar Ibn Yasir: one of the outstanding and early companions Amr Ibn Al-Auss: a well-known wily Qureshite companion Amr Ibn Wodd: a famous pagan Qureshite hero who lost his duel with the Imam Ali Arafat: a holy place in the vicinity of Mecca Aqeel: a brother of the Imam Ali Ayeshah: a wife of the Prophet Azarbaijan: a province in the north of Iran.

B

Badr: the place of the first important and famous battle between the Prophet and his Qureshite pagan enemies Al-Balqa: a province in Jordan.

Banul-Mustalaq: a Hejazi Arab tribe.

Bara-ah: the 9th chapter of the Holy Qur'an.

Battle of Al-Harrah: between the righteous natives of Medina and the army of the wicked Yazeed Ibn Muaweyah

Bukhari: a hadith recorder lived during the third century after the Hijrah.

C

Caliph: a person that assumes the Islamic leadership and is a direct or indirect successor of the Prophet Caliphate: an Islamic leadership in the name of succession to the Prophet Cave of Thour: where the Prophet hid himself from the Meccan pagans the night of the Hijrah. Abu Bakr was with him.

D

Al-Daroom: a province in Palestine Dinar: an old currency equivalent to $20.00 Dirham: an old currency equivalent to $2.00 Doumat Al- Jendal: an area in Hijaz.

F

Fadak: a group of orchards of Palm trees in Hijaz within the area of Khaibur Faltah: an action done hastily without deliberation Fatima: daughter of the Prophet who survived him and was the dearest to his heart Fihr Ibn Malik: the great-grandfather of the tribes of Mecca who were living in the area Fulan: x man.

G

Ghadeer (pond of water) Khum: a location between Mecca and Medina at which the Prophet declared Ali's leadership.

Ghatafan: an Arab tribe who were living in Hijaz at the time of the Prophet.

H

Hadith: a reported statement or action or silent approval of the Prophet Muhammad.

Hajar: Egyptian wife of the Prophet Abraham who was the mother of Ishmael son of Abraham.

Hajj: a pilgrim after his return from a pilgrimage to Mecca. Also a pilgrimage.

Al-Hamza: one of the uncles of the Prophet Muhammad who died at the Battle of Ohad and a distinguished martyr Harith: plower a common name.

Hashimite: a descendant of Hashim the grandfather of the Prophet.

Al-Hassan: the first son of the Iman Ali and Fatima. He is the second Imam of the members of the House of the Prophet.

Hawazin: an Arab tribe fought the Prophet and lost to him.

Hijaz: the country in which Mecca is situated. Now it is a section of Saudi Arabia.

Hijrah: the departure of the Prophet from Mecca to Medina.

Homs: a city in Syria Hudeibeyah: a place near Mecca at which the Prophet made a temporary truce between him and Pagan Meccans.

Hunain: a place at which the army of the Prophet was attacked by the tribe of Hawazin

Al-Hussein: the second son of the Imam Ali and Fatima and the third Imam from the members of the House of the Prophet.

I

Ibn: son Ihram: to refrain from having perfume sex wearing sewn clothes etc. while on a Pilgrimage to Mecca Imam: a leader of the Muslims. The highest Imam is the one appointed by the Prophet.

Imran: Imran was the father of Mary mother of Jesus Itrah: one's closest relatives. The Prophet's contemporary Itrah were Ali Fatimah Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein.

J

Jaafar Al-Sadiq (the truthful): the sixth Imam from the members of the House of the Prophet.

Jaber Ibn Abdullah: a famous companion of the Prophet.

He was from the natives of Medina.

Jaber Ibn Samorah: a companion of the Prophet.

Al- Jarrah: the name of the father of one of the companions also the surgeon.

Jazirah: a peninsula a name of a province in Syria Jihad: endeavor in the way of God.

K

Kaaba: the Holy Temple which is situated in Mecca and was built by the Prophet Abraham and his son Ishmael.

Kaab Ibn Ujrah: a companion of the Prophet.

Kafir: unbeliever.

Karbala: a famous city in Iraq. It was built after the martyrdom of Imam Hussein. Karbala is the city on the land of which the Imam Hussein was martyred.

Khadeejah: the first wife of the Prophet and is remembered as a great woman in Islamic history Khalid Ibn Abdullah Ibn Oseid: one of the Omayad appointed governors by the third caliph Othman.

Kharijis: extremist fanatic Muslims appeared during Imam Ali's rule as violent opponents.

Kheibar: Arab Jewish community who lived at the time of the Prophet in Hijaz about eighty miles from Medina.

Ibn Khumeis: a man who was an aide of an Omayad appointed governor of Kufa.

Kinanah: an Arab tribe who lived in Hijaz during the time of the Prophet.

Kufa: a major city in Iraq during the life of Ali.

M

Maghafeer: a sticky secretion of a particular tree which had an undesirable aroma.

Makhzoom: a Qureshite tribe lived in Mecca at the time of the Prophet.

Malik Al-Ashtar: a Muslim hero and a staunch supporter and student of Imam Ali.

Marwan: son of Al-Hakam from Omayad. He influenced Othman the third Caliph to derail from the precept of the first two Caliphs.

Musnad: a book of Hadith written by Imam Ahmad Ibn Hunbul.

Mecca: the holy city which was built around the Kaaba.

Medina: the city to which the Prophet migrated and made it the capital of the Islamic State.

Mihras: a little collective place of water Moat: the ditch which was dug around Medina to prevent the enemies of Islam from entering the city.

Muaweya: son of Abu Sufyan who fought the Imam Ali the brother of the Prophet Mubahalah: a contest prayer in which two parties ask God to pursue the wrong one.

Mujtahid: a Muslim scholar who can form an independent opinion in the Islamic law based on the Qur'an and the Prophet's teaching.

Mustadrak: a book authored by Al-Hakim Al-Neesaboory Mutah: a temporary marriage.

Mutawatir: a hadith reported by numerous companions.

N

Naathal: name of a bearded Arab Jew who lived during the seventh century at the time of Othman the Third Caliph.

Nadwa: a Qureshite club whose members were the chiefs of Mecca during the time of the Prophet.

Nahjul-Balaghah: a book contains a collection of the Sermons of the Imam Ali his messages and words.

Najd: an Arab country which is now a portion of Saudi Arabia.

Najran: a city in Yemen was populated by an Arab Christian community during the time of the Prophet.

O

Ohod: a place near Medina at which the battle of Ohod occurred between the Prophet and the Pagans of Mecca.

Om Aiman: a righteous lady commended by the Prophet.

‘Umar: the Second Caliph.

Omayad: a Qureshite clan from Mecca was strongly opposed to the Prophet and fought him then adopted Islam after their defeat.

Osamah: a companion appointed by the Prophet to lead an expedition to Palestine.

Othman: the Third Caliph.

Ouf: a name of the father of a companion whose name was Abdul-Rahman.

Q

Qaisites: members of Qais tribe from Iraq.

Qoba: a place near Medina at which the Prophet rested before entering Medina.

Quda-ah: an Arab tribe lived in Hijaz at the time of the Prophet.

Quinnisrine: a Syrian province.

Quraidhah: an Arab Jewish tribe who lived near Medina during the time of the Prophet.

Quraish: the clans who inhabited Mecca at the time of the Prophet.

Qur'an: the Holy Book which contains the revelations which the Prophet Muhammad received from his Lord.

R

Al-Rabathah: a desert area in Najd to which the companion Abu Tharr was exiled.

Rafi: a companion who served the Prophet.

Rajab: the seventh month of the lunar year which begins by the month of Muharram.

Ruhbah: a square in the city of Kufa during the time of the Imam Ali.

S

Safa and Marwa: two sacred places near the Kaaba Sahih: authentic.

Sal'a: a place in the vicinity of Medina Saleem: an Arab tribe lived in Hijaz at the time of the Prophet.

Salim Moula Abu Hutheifa: a companion who was an ally of Abu Hutheifa who was another companion.

Salman Al-Farisi: a highly respected Iranian companion of the Prophet.

Saqifat Ranu Sa-idah: a club in Medina at which the natives of Medina conferred for selecting a caliph when the Prophet died.

Saraf: a place between Mecca and Medina Al-Seerat Al-Halabeyah: Biography of the Prophet authored by Ibn Husham.

Siffeen: a land in Syria at which a historical battle between the Imam Ali and Muaweyah took place.

Al-Shateebah: there was during the time of the Prophet an Arab Jewish tribe called Banu Al-Shateebah.

Shi-ab Abu Talib: a place in Mecca at which Abu Talib the Prophet and the rest of the Hashimites lived when the Meccan Pagans imposed a blockade against the Hashimite.

Shi-ites: the Muslims who believe that the Prophet appointed Ali his Caliph.

Sunan: plural of Sunnah. A reported statement or action or silent approval by the Prophet.

Sunnites: the Muslims who believe that the Prophet did not appoint a successor and that Abu Bakr was the first caliph by election.

T

Tabuk: a city in Hijaz bordering Jordan.

Ta-if: a city in Hijaz Saudi Arabia.

Talhah: an ambitious companion of the Prophet who agitated against the Third Caliph Othman and revolted against the Imam Ali.

Tuhama: a province in Saudi Arabia.

Al-Thaqalain: the Two Valuables the Book of God and the Instructions of the Prophet.

W

Wazeer: a minister usually a top aide to a head of state.

Y

Yazeed: a common Arabic name also a name of the wicked ruler who was the son of Muaweyah and his appointed successor. Yazeed massacred the family of the Prophet.

Al- Yamamah: a province of Saudi Arabia.

Z

Zeid Ibn Arqam: a companion native of Medina Zakat: an Islamic tax decreed in the Qur'an Al-Zubeir: an ambitious companion that opposed Othman and revolted against the Imam Ali Zulfiqar: a name of the sword of the Imam Ali.