Table of Contents

Chapter 4: The Forming of the Life-germ

4.1: The Effects of being Born Pure

92. Ma’ani al-Akhbar, narrating from Husayn ibn Zaid, from Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.), from his fathers (a.s.): “The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) said: “Whoever loves us the Ahlul-Bayt must praise Allah Almighty for the foremost of blessings.”

Some asked: “What is the foremost of blessings?”

He answered: “Purity of birth. No one will love us except those who are born pure, and no one hates us other than those who are born impure.”1

93. ‘Ilal al-Shara’i’, narrating from Abu Ayyub al-Ansari who said: “Present the love of ‘Ali to your children, and those who love him are from you, and those who do not love him you must ask its mother where she got him from, for I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) say to ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib: “No one loves you except a believer, and no one hates you except a hypocrite, a person of illegitimate birth, or a child conceived during its mother’s menses.”2

94. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said: “Good intention denotes purity of birth.”3

95. Imam al-Baqir (a.s.) said: “The one whose birth is pure will enter Paradise.”4

96. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said: “Allah created Paradise clean and pure, so no one will enter it except those who are of pure birth.”5

97. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said: “He who has found the harmony of our love in his heart must abundantly pray for his mother for she did not betray his father.”6

آثارُ طيبِ الوِلادَةِ

92. معاني الأخبار عن الحسين بن زيد، عن الإمام الصادق عليه السلام عن آبائه عليهم السلام: قالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وآله: مَن أحَبَّنا أَهلَ البَيتِ، فَليَحمَدِ اللهَ تَعالى عَلى‏ أوَّلِ النِّعَمِ. قيلَ: و ما أوَّلُ النِّعَمِ؟

قالَ: طيبُ الوِلادَةِ، و لا يُحِبُّنا إلّا مَن طابَت وِلادَتُهُ، وَ لا يُبغِضُنا إلّا مَن خَبُثَت وِلادَتُهُ.

93. علل الشرائع: أبو أيّوبَ الأنصارِيُ: اعرِضوا حُبَّ عَلِيٍ عَلى‏ أولادِكُم، فَمَن أحَبَّهُ فَهُوَ مِنكُم، وَ مَن لَم يُحِبَّهُ فَاسأَلوا امَّهُ مِن أينَ جَاءَت بِهِ؛ فَإِنّي سَمِعتُ رَسولَ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وآله يَقولُ لِعَلِيّ بنِ أبي طالِبٍ: «لا يُحِبُّكَ إلّا مُؤمِنٌ، ولا يُبْغِضُكَ إلّا مُنافِقٌ أو وَلَدُ زِنيَةٍ، أو حَمَلَتهُ امُّهُ وَ هِيَ طامِثٌ».

94. الإمام عليّ عليه السلام: جَميلُ المَقصَدِ يَدُلُّ عَلى طَهارَةِ المَولِدِ.

95. الإمام الباقر عليه السلام: مَن طَهُرَت وِلادَتُهُ دَخَلَ الجَنَّةَ.

96. الإمام الصادق عليه السلام: إنَّ اللهَ تَعالى‏ خَلَقَ الجَنَّةَ طاهِرَةً مُطَهَّرَةً، فلا يَدخُلُها إلّا مَن طابَت وِلادَتُهُ.

97. عنه عليه السلام: مَن وَجَدَ بَردَ حُبِّنا عَلى قَلبِهِ فَليُكثِرِ الدُّعاءَ لِامِّهِ؛ فَإِنَّها لَم تَخُن أباهُ.

4.2: The Effects of Impure Birth

“… and share with them in wealth and children…”7

98. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said: “Good morals cannot be separated from any one except a child conceived during menses or a child from adultery.”8

99. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said to ‘Ali (a.s.): “No one will hate you except for three groups of people: the illegitimately born, the hypocrite and he who his mother got pregnant with him while she was in her menses.”9

100. Kanz al-Ummal, narrating from Abu Hurayrah who said: “The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) said: “There will come a time for people when devils will be partners in having their children.” Some asked: “Is this possible, O Messenger of Allah?”

He said: “Yes.” They asked: “How can we recognize our children from their children?” He answered: “By having very little modesty and very little mercy.”10

101. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said: “He who is not embarrassed from what he says or from what is said to him, he is either an illegitimate child, or his mother got pregnant with him while being in her menses.”11

102. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said: “The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) said: ‘Allah has prohibited the entering of Paradise for he who is abusive, has little modesty, and does not fear of what he says and what is said about him. If you were to investigate him, you would not find him other than being born from an illegitimate relationship or the partner of Satan.”

He was asked: “O Messenger of Allah! Is there a partner of Satan among people?”

The Prophet (s.a.w.) said: “Have you not read Allah’s saying: “…and share with them in wealth and children…?”12

103. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said: “He who is vile is a sign of his birth being malevolent.”13

104. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said: “No one will hate us except for whose birth is impure, or their mother became pregnant during her menses.”14

آثارُ خُبْثِ الوِلادَةِ

(وَ شارِكْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْوالِ وَ الْأَوْلادِ).

98. رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: الخُلُقُ الحَسَنُ لا يُنزَعُ إلّا مِن وَلَدِ حَيضَةٍ، أو وَلَدِ زِنيَةٍ.

99. عنه صلى الله عليه وآله لِعَليّ عليه السلام‏ لا يُبغِضُكُم إلّا ثَلاثَةٌ: وَلَدُ زِنا، وَ مُنافِقٌ، وَ مَن حَمَلَت بِهِ امُّهُ و هِيَ حائِضٌ.

100. كنز العمّال عن أبي هريرة عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: يَأتي عَلَى النّاسِ زَمانٌ يُشارِكُهُمُ الشَّياطِينُ في أولادِهِم. قيلَ: و كائِنٌ ذلِكَ يا رَسولَ اللهِ؟ قالَ: نَعَم. قالوا: و كَيفَ نَعرِفُ أولادَنا مِن أولادِهِم؟ قالَ: بِقِلَّةِ الحَياءِ، و قِلَّةِ الرَّحمَةِ.

101. رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: مَن لَم يَستَحِ فيما قالَ، أو قيلَ لَهُ فَهُوَ لِغَيرِ رِشَدَةٍ، أو حَمَلَت بِهِ امُّهُ عَلى غَيرِ طُهرٍ.

102. الإمام عليّ عليه السلام: قالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وآله: إنَّ اللهَ حَرَّمَ الجَنَّةَ عَلى كُلِّ فَحّاشٍ بَذي‏ءٍ قَليلِ الحَياءِ، لا يُبالي ما قالَ، و لا ما قيلَ لَهُ؛ فَإِنَّكَ إن فَتَّشتَهُ لَم تَجِدهُ إلّا لِغَيَّةٍ أو شِركَ شَيطانٍ. فَقيلَ: يا رَسولَ اللهِ، و في النّاسِ شِركُ شَيطانٍ؟!

فَقالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وآله: أما تَقرَأُ قَولَ اللهِ: (وَ شارِكْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْوالِ وَ الْأَوْلادِ).

103. عنه عليه السلام: مَن لَؤُمَ ساءَ ميلادُهُ.

104. الإمام الصادق عليه السلام: لا يُبغِضُنا إلّا مَن خَبُثَت وِلادَتُهُ، أو حَمَلَت بِهِ امُّهُ في حَيضِها.

4.3: The Harm of Copulating with a Woman during her Menses

“They ask you concerning [intercourse during] menses. Say: ‘It is hurtful.’ So keep away from [intercourse with] wives during the menses, and do not approach them till they are clean. And when they become clean, go into them as Allah has commanded you. Indeed Allah loves the penitent and He loves those who keep clean.”15

105. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said: “He who has intercourse with his wife while she is in her menses and his child is born with leprosy or alphosis, he should not blame anyone other than himself.”16

106. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said: “My Nation! Indeed Allah the Blessed and Supreme dislikes you to have any of twenty four characteristics and He has reproached you about them: …He dislikes a man to copulate with his wife while she is in her menses, and if he was to copulate her and the child is born with leprosy or alphosis, he should not blame anyone other than himself.”17

107. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said: “If someone was to have intercourse with his wife while she is in her menses and then a child is born to them who is afflicted with leprosy, he should not blame anyone other than himself.”18

108. al-Kafi, narrating from ‘Adhafir al-Sayrafi who said: “Abu ‘Abdullah [al-Sadiq] (a.s.) said: “Do you see these repulsive looking people?”

I said: “Yes.”

He said: “It is because their fathers had intercourse with their mothers while they were in their menses.”19 20


مَضَارٌّ وَطءِ الحائِضِ


(


وَ يَسْئَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْمَحِيضِ قُلْ هُوَ أَذىً فَاعْتَزِلُوا النِّساءَ فِي



الْمَحِيضِ وَ لا تَقْرَبُوهُنَّ حَتَّى يَطْهُرْنَ فَإِذا تَطَهَّرْنَ فَأْتُوهُنَّ



مِنْ حَيْثُ أَمَرَكُمُ اللَّهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ التَّوَّابِينَ وَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَطَهِّرِينَ).


105. رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله‏ مَن جامَعَ امرَأَتَهُ وهِيَ حائِضٌ فَخَرَجَ الوَلَدُ مَجذوماً أو أبرَصَ فَلا يَلومَنَّ إلّا نَفسَهُ.


106. عنه صلى الله عليه وآله: إنَّ اللهَ تَبارَكَ و تَعالى كَرِه لَكُم أيَّتُها الامَّةُ أربَعاً وعِشرينَ خَصلَةً، ونَهاكُم عَنها: ... كَرِهَ لِلرَّجُلِ أن يَغشَى امرَأَتَهُ و هِيَ حائِضٌ، فَإِن غَشِيَها فَخَرَجَ‏



الوَلَدُ مَجذوما أو أبرَصَ فَلا يَلومَنَّ إلّا نَفسَهُ.

107. عنه صلى الله عليه وآله: مَن وَطِئَ امرَأَتَهُ و هِيَ حائِضٌ فَقُضِيَ بَينَهُما وَلَدٌ فأصابَهُ جُذامٌ فَلا يَلومَنَّ إلّا نَفسَهُ.

108. الكافي عن عذافر الصيرفي: قالَ أبو عَبدِ اللهِ عليه السلام: تَرى‏ هؤُلاءِ المُشَوَّهينَ خَلقُهُم؟ قالَ: قُلتُ: نَعَم.


قالَ: هؤُلاءِ الَّذينَ آباؤهُم يَأتونَ نِساءَهُم فِي الطَّمَثِ.

4.4: The Blessings of Supplicating During Intercourse

109. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said: “Be alert! If a person, at the time of approaching his wife says: ‘In the name of Allah, O Allah! Keep Satan away from us, and keep Satan away from what You have blessed us with’, and then a child is determined for them in this intercourse, Satan can never harm him.”21

110. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said: “O ‘Ali! If you were to have intercourse, say: ‘In the name of Allah. O Allah! Keep Satan away from us and keep him away from what you have blessed me with’, and if it is destined that a child is conceived from you two, Satan will never harm him.”22

111. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said: “If a man intends to have intercourse with his wife, he should say: ‘O’ Allah! I made her private part lawful [for myself] by Your command and I accepted her as a trust from you. So, if You have destined a child from her for me, make him a healthy son; and do not allow Satan to have a share in him nor any partnership.”23

112. Imam al-Baqir (a.s.) said: “If you intend to have a child, then say at the time of copulation: “O Allah! Bless me with a child and make him pious, with no additional or missing organs [physically healthy] and make his ending a good one.”24

113. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said: “He who desires his wife to become pregnant, he should perform a two- unit prayer with long bowing and prostration after his Friday prayers, and then say: “O Allah! I beseech You the same thing that Zachariah asked You. O Lord! Do not leave me alone, for You are the best of inheritors! O’ Allah! Bestow upon me from You a pure offspring, indeed You are the hearer of prayers. O’ Allah! By Your name I made her lawful for me and I took her as a trust from You. So, if You have decreed a child in her womb, make him a blessed pure son and do not allow Satan to be a share or partner in him.”25

114. Tafsir al-’Ayyashi, narrating from Sulayman ibn Khalid who said: “I asked Abu ‘Abdullah [al-Sadiq] (a.s.) what the meaning was of Allah’s saying: ‘…and share with them in wealth and children…?’ He (a.s.) answered: “In this regard, you must say: “I seek refuge in Allah the All-hearing, the All-knowing from the accursed Satan.”26

بَرَكاتُ الدُّعاءِ عِنْدَ الجِماعِ‏

109. رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: أما لَو أنَّ أحَدَهُم يَقولُ حِينَ يَأتي أهلَهُ: «بِسمِ اللهِ، اللّهُمَّ جَنِّبني الشَّيطانَ، و جَنِّبِ الشَّيطانَ ما رَزَقتَنا» ثُمَّ قُدِّرَ بَينَهما فِي ذلِكَ أو قُضِيَ وَلَدٌ .

110. عنه صلى الله عليه وآله: يا عَلِيُ، إذا جامَعتَ فَقُل: «بِسمِ اللهِ، اللّهُمَّ جَنِّبنَا الشَّيطانَ و جَنِّبِ الشَّيطانَ ما رَزَقتَني»، فَإِن قُضِيَ أن يَكونَ بَينَكُما وَلَدٌ لَم يَضُرَّهُ الشَّيطانُ أبَداً.

111. الإمام عليّ عليه السلام: إذا أرادَ أحَدُكُم مُجامَعَةَ زَوجَتِهِ فَليَقُل: اللّهُمَّ إنّي استَحلَلتُ فَرجَها بِأَمرِكَ، و قَبِلتُها بِأَمانَتِكَ، فَإِن قَضَيتَ لي مِنها وَلَداً فَاجعَلهُ ذَكَراً سَوِيّاً، و لا تَجعَل‏ لِلشَّيطانِ فيهِ نَصيبا و لا شَريكاً.

112. الإمام الباقر عليه السلام: إذا أرَدتَ الوَلَدَ فَقُل عِندَ الجِماعِ: اللّهُمَّ ارزُقني وَلَداً، وَ اجَعَلهُ تَقِيّاً لَيسَ في خَلقِهِ زِيادَةٌ و لا نُقصانٌ، وَ اجعَل عاقِبَتَهُ إلى خَيرٍ.

113. الإمام الصادق عليه السلام: مَن أرادَ أن يُحبَلَ لَهُ فَليُصَلِّ رَكعَتَينِ بَعدَ الجُمعَةِ، يُطيلُ فيهِمَا الرُّكوعَ وَ السُّجودَ، ثُمَّ يَقولُ: اللّهُمَّ إنّي أَسأَلُكَ بِما سَأَلَكَ بِهِ زَكرِيّا، يا رَبِّ لا تَذَرنِي فَردا و أنتَ خَيرُ الوارِثينَ، اللّهُمَّ هَب لي مِن لَدُنكَ ذُرِّيَّةً طَيِّبَةً، إنَّكَ سَمِيعُ الدُّعاءِ، اللّهُمَّ بِاسمِكَ استَحلَلتُها، و في أمانَتِكَ أخَذتُها، فَإِن قَضَيتَ في رَحِمِها وَلَدا فَاجعَلهُ غُلاما مُبارَكا زَكِيّا، و لا تَجعَل لِلشَّيطانِ فيهِ شِركا و لا نَصيبا.

114. تفسير العيّاشي عن سليمان بن خالد: قُلتُ لِأبي عَبدِ اللهِ عليه السلام: ما قَولُ اللهِ: «شَارِكْهُمْ فِى الْاءَمْوَ لِ وَ الْاءَوْلَدِ»؟ قالَ: فَقالَ: قُل في ذلِكَ قَولًا: أَعوذُ بِاللهِ السَّميعِ العَليمِ مِنَ الشَّيطانِ الرَّجيمِ.

4.5: The Role of the Conditions on the Formation of the Life-germ

115. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said: “It is not good for a man to associate with his wife after he has had a wet dream until he performs his ritual bath from the wet dream he saw, but if he was to do so [copulate before having bath] and the child was born insane, he should not blame anyone other than himself.”27

116. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said: “If any of you was to copulate with his wife, he must cover himself, for if he does not cover himself, the angels will become shy and leave, and Satan will be present, and so if a child is conceived from them, Satan has a share in him.”28

117. Imam al-Ridha (a.s.) said: “Having intercourse after intercourse without a ritual bath in between will cause insanity in the child [conceived from it].”29

118. Imam al-Ridha (a.s.) said: “Do not have intercourse with women at the beginning of the night, in neither winter or summer, as the stomach and veins are full and it is not an appropriate act. There is also the fear of colic, chin-trembling gout, renal calculus, urine distillation, hernia, poor eyesight and weak memory. So, if you intend to have intercourse, it must be at the end of the night, for it is healthier for the body and more hopeful for the child [being conceived], and it is better for the increase of intelligence of the child that is conceived between them.”30 31

دَوْرُ الأَحْوالِ فِي انْعِقادِ النُّطفَةِ

115. رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: يُكرَهُ أن يَغشَى الرَّجُلُ المَرأَةَ و قَدِ احتَلَمَ حَتّى يَغتَسِلَ مِنِ احتِلامِهِ الَّذي رَأى، فَإن فَعَلَ و خَرَجَ الوَلَدُ مَجنوناً فَلا يَلومَنَّ إلّا نَفسَهُ.

116. عنه صلى الله عليه وآله‏ إذا أتى‏ أحَدُكُم أهلَهُ فَليَستَتِر؛ فَإِنَّهُ إذا لَم يَستَتِر استَحيَتِ المَلائِكَةُ و خَرَجَت، و حَضَرَهُ الشَّيطانُ، فَإذا كانَ بَينَهُما وَلَدٌ كانَ الشَّيطانُ فيهِ شَريكٌ‏ .

117. الإمام الرضا عليه السلام‏ الجِماعُ بَعدَ الجِماعِ مِن غَيرِ أن يَكونَ بَينَهُما غُسلٌ يُورِثُ لِلوَلَدِ الجُنونَ.

118. عنه عليه السلام: لا تَقرَبِ النِّساءَ في أوَّلِ اللَّيلِ لا شِتاءً و لا صَيفاً، و ذلِكَ أنَّ المَعِدَةَ وَ العُروقَ تَكونُ مُمتَلِئَةً و هُوَ غَيرُ مَحمودٍ، يُتَخَوَّفُ مِنهُ القولَنجُ‏ وَ الفالِجُ، و اللَّقوَةُ، و النِّقرِسُ، و الحَصاةُ، و التَّقطِيرُ، وَ الفَتقُ وَ ضَعفُ البَصَرِ و الدِّماغِ.

فَإِذا أُريدَ ذلِكَ فَليَكُن في آخِرِ اللَّيلِ؛ فَإِنَّهُ أصَحُّ لِلبَدَنِ، و أرجى‏ لِلوَلَدِ، وَ أذكى‏ لِلعَقلِ فِي الوَلَدِ الَّذي يُقضى‏ بَينهُما.

  • 1. . Ma’ani al-Akhbar, p. 161, h. 1. ‘Ilal al-Shara’i’, p. 141, h. 1. al-Mahasin, vol. 1, p. 232, h. 419.
  • 2. . ‘Ilal al-Shara’i’, p. 145, h. 12. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 39, p. 301, h. 110.
  • 3. . Ghurar al-Hikam, h. 4758.
  • 4. . al-Mahasin, vol. 1, p. 233, h. 423, narrating from Sadit al-Sayrafi. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 4, p. 287, h. 10.
  • 5. . ‘Ilal al-Shara’i’, p. 564, h. 1, narrating from Sa’d ibn ‘Umar al-Jallab. al-Mahasin, vol. 1, p. 233, h. 424, narrating from ‘Abdullah ibn Sinan.
  • 6. . Kitab Man la Yahdarhu al-Faqih, vol. 3, p. 493, h. 4745. ‘Ilal al-Shara’i’, p. 142, h. 5, narrating from al-Mufaddal ibn ‘Umar.
  • 7. . Qur’an, 17:64.
  • 8. . al-Firdaws, vol. 2, p. 200, h, narrating from Abu Hurayrah. 2992. Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 3, p. 3, h. 5136.
  • 9. . ‘Ilal al-Shara’i’, p. 142, h. 6, narrating from Um Salamah. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 27, p. 151, h. 19.
  • 10. . Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 3, p. 126, h. 5795, narrating from Abu al-Shaikh from Abu Hurayrah.
  • 11. . Usd al-Ghabah, vol. 2, p. 643, h. 2461. al-Firdaws, vol. 3, p. 623, h. 5947. Both narraiting fron Showayfa’. Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 3, p. 125, h. 5794, narrating from al-Tabarani.
  • 12. . al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 323, h. 3, narrating from Sulaym ibn Qays from Imam ‘Ali (a.s.). al-Zuhd, p. 7, h. 12, narrating from sulaym ibn Qays from Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) from the Prophet (s.a.w.).
  • 13. . Ghurar al-Hikam, h. 7817.
  • 14. . Kitab Man la Yahdarhu al-Faqih, vol. 1, p. 96, h. 203.
  • 15. . Qur’an, 2:222.
  • 16. . Kitab Man la Yahdarhu al-Faqih, vol. 1, p. 96, h. 201. Makarim al-Akhlaq, vol. 1, p. 459, h. 1557.
  • 17. . Kitab Man la Yahdarhu al-Faqih, vol. 3, p. 556, h. 4914. al-Khisal, p. 520, h. 9. al-Amali, by al-Saduq, p. 378, h. 478. All narrating from al-Husayn ibn Zaid from Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.).
  • 18. . al-Mu’jam al-Awsat, vol. 3, p. 326, h. 3300, narrating from Abu Hurayrah. Kanz al-‘Ummal, vol. 16, p. 352, h. 44885.
  • 19. . al-Kafi, vol. 5, p. 539, h. 5. ‘Ilal al-Shara’i’, p. 82, h. 1, narrating from Ibn Abu ‘Adhafir al-Sayrafi.
  • 20. . What we can conclude from this set of traditions is that sexual intercourse and becoming pregnant during the period of menstruation can be one reason for having repulsive features or being afflicted with leprosy or alphosis, but it’s not the only factor. Therefore, we cannot say that any child afflicted with any of the above diseases is the result of having unlawful intercourse. There is no clear mentioning in the traditions that could answer as to whether intercourse during the state of menstruation leads to these consequences or not, but rather the negation of these things can be concluded, and scientific research can be helpful in this regard.
  • 21. . Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 5, p. 1982 h. 4870. Sunan Ibn Majah, vol. 1, p. 618, h. 1919. Musnad Ibn Hanbal, vol. 1, p. 465, h. 1867. All narrating from Ibn ‘Abbas.
  • 22. . Tuhaf al-’Uqul, p. 12. al-Ikhtisas, p. 134 h. 115, narrating from al-Khudri.
  • 23. . al-Khisal, p. 637, h. 10, narrating from Abu Basir and Muhammad ibn Muslim from Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) from his forefathers (a.s.). Tuhaf al-’Uqul, p. 125. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 10, p. 115, h. 1.
  • 24. . al-Kafi, vol. 6, p. 10, h. 12. Tahdhib al-Ahkam, vol. 7, p. 411, h. 1641. Both narrating from Muhammad ibn Muslim.
  • 25. . al-Kafi, vol. 6, p. 8, h. 3. Tahdhib al-Ahkam, vol. 3, p. 315, h. 974. narrating from Muhammad ibn Muslim.
  • 26. . Tafsir al-’Ayyashi, vol. 2, p. 300, h. 107. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 103, p. 294 h. 47.
  • 27. . Tahdhib al-Ahkam, vol. 7, p. 412, h. 1646, narrating from Muhammad ibn al-’Is from Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) . Kitab Man la Yahdarhu al-Faqih, vol. 3, p. 557, h. 4914, narrating from al-Husayn ibn Zaid ibn ‘Ali ibn al-Husayn (a.s.) from Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) from his forefathers (a.s.) from the Prophet (s.a.w.).
  • 28. . al-Mu’jam al-Awsat, vol. 1, p. 63, h. 176, narrating from Abu Hurayrah. Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 16, p. 343, h. 44835.
  • 29. . Tibb al-Imam al-Ridha (a.s.), p. 28. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 62, p. 321.
  • 30. . Tibb al-Imam al-Ridha (a.s.), p. 64. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 62, p. 327.
  • 31. . It must be said that the role of the different states and times of sexual intercourse in the destiny of the child mentioned in these traditions apparently means that they have a partial effect, and it is not the complete cause. And Allah knows best.