Table of Contents

Chapter 7: Key Issues for Contemporary Muslims

7.1 Muslim identity

According to the Holy Qur’an, virtue is the singular merit of Muslim identity. While education, talent, socio-economic status, family background and wealth are credentials for status within secular society, none of these aspects plays any role whatever in the evaluation of Islamic personality:

O people, We have created you from a male and a female and made you nations and tribes so that empathy may be established between you. Truly, in the sight of Allah, those who are virtuous are the most distinguished. (Qur’an 49:13)

All Messengers were proud to have been designated ‘Servants of Allah’. Allah tells us in the Qur’an that the first words Isa (a.s.) uttered were, ‘I am Allah's servant . . .’ (Qur’an 19:30). He describes Dawud (a.s.) as being 'A worthy servant' (Qur’an 38:30), and Ayub (a.s.) as 'A patient and worthy servant' (Qur’an 38:44).

The same is applied to the Seal of Prophethood - Muhammad Mustafa (S) whom all Muslims acclaim to be the 'Teacher of Virtue'. Indeed, the Muslim declaration of faith - tashahud - attests to Muhammad (S) being His servant and messenger, making it clear that to be Allah's worthy servant is the highest standing a human being can aspire to.

Clearly, wholehearted commitment is needed to attain such a level of servant hood. Accordingly, the journey towards perfection begins with the sincere motivation to be a devoted and worthy servant. Those that achieve it truly become 'Masters of the World', for Allah tells us in a Hadith Qudsi, 'O my servant, obey me and I will elevate your status to one in which you have only to order "Be", for it to exist.'

The characteristic of truly worthy servants is unfaltering consciousness of Allah's omnipresence and awareness that He knows everything they do. With the same awareness that prompts motorists to slow down as soon as they spot a speed camera, true believers remain constantly aware that Allah is witness to their actions. Their conscience is a mirror that reflects Allah's ordinances on every aspect of their lives. That is why Imam Ali (a.s.) said, 'I never undertook anything without awareness of Allah's omnipresence before it, during it and in consideration of its effect.1

A very long time ago a physician, renowned for his healing prowess, also earned acclaim for not accepting payment for his services. Not unsurprisingly, it did not take long for the merits of this virtuous man to spread throughout the land. So, when the king's own physicians proved unable to cure his ailing daughter, his vizier suggested they consult the famous physician from the faraway provincial town. An emissary was immediately dispatched and, in due course, returned with the physician. Not long after, he managed to effect a cure and the princess regained her health. In an expression of heartfelt gratitude, the king ordered his vizier to accompany the physician to the city limits and their present him with two pack horses loaded with the finest gifts from his treasury.

In spite of the gifts being from the king of the realm, the physician declined to accept anything. The vizier beseeched him, but the physician said that he was not prepared to alter his customary behavior. He remained resolute, even when the vizier pointed out that if he returned with the gifts he would incur the king's displeasure. When the vizier then said that his only option would be to keep the gifts for himself, the physician replied that he must do as he thought fit. The vizier then pointed out that the physician should accept the gifts because, in any event, the king would believe his gifts had been accepted. The physician responded that while that might be so, his own conscience would know that they had not.

The Prophet (S) related that Allah had said,

‘A servant may make every effort to draw close to me through voluntary prayer until I love him. When I love him, I become his ear by which he hears, his sight by which he sees, his tongue by which he speaks and his hand by which he acts. When he calls I answer him and when he asks I respond.'2

The above accurately represents the identity of a true Muslim.

According to Imam·Ali (a.s.) the signs of true believers - mu'minin - are that they:

1. appear cheerful and optimistic;

2. do not make a display of their sorrows;

3. are broadminded and tolerant;

4. are humble;

5. eschew publicity and arrogance;

6. remain conscious of the hereafter;

7. aspire to noble objectives;

8. do not prattle inconsequentially;

9. busy themselves in worthwhile activities;

10. project gratitude and patience;

11. seriously consider all possible consequences before they act; and

12. maintain a bright demeanor and a gentle approach.

7.2 Are cultural practices binding?

One of the greatest problems for all Muslim communities is their tendency to confuse authentic teaching with customs and traditions. Sociologists understand that the emphatic nature of some traditions serves to condition people's understanding of faith. This has resulted in confusion being sown in the minds of future generations. For example, history records that the horse Imam t:tusayn rode on his journey to Karbala was one of the finest he'd inherited from the Prophet .

Despite there not being a shred of documentary evidence in support of that horse having any specific name, many cultures persevere in the belief that it was called 'Zuljinah'. In spite of it only being acceptable for Muslims to pray and prostrate to Allah Almighty, in some cultures prayers are offered before, or to horses that are imagined to resemble 'Zuljinah', in a misguided belief that Imam Husayn (a.s.) will hear and answer them. Yet others whisper prayers into the ears of horses of similar appearance, in the belief that these will be answered if the horse nods its head.

Some Muslims affix horseshoes to the entrance of their homes to dispel 'the evil eye'; and they believe that to hear a cawing crow when starting out on a journey is an omen of such portent that they should cancel their trip. Others believe that the number 13 is inauspicious; and that one sneeze is a sign that current activity should stop and two sneezes, that work needs to be speeded up. Unsurprisingly, none of the above has any religious basis or significance whatsoever.

Islamic scholars have scrutinized available texts in order to identify the practices and beliefs that are based upon authentic religious texts and those that have politico-cultural foundations. The most dangerous sources of confusion are the reports, fabricated for political reasons, that falsely attribute to the Prophet (S) sayings or deeds supportive of one or other group vying for pre-eminence:

Specifically, from 132-750 on, the crucial religio-political issue for every historian had been what stance he ought to take in regard to the Abbasids - whether to see them as usurpers either of Umayyad or ‘Alid rights, as legitimate successors to the continuing and unbroken caliphate succession since Abu Bakr or even restorers of the purity and integrity of the primitive community. On one's resolution of this delicate problem rested his whole interpretation of Islamic history during the century and a half before the Abbasid Revolution. (p.72)

The validity of Wellhausen's arguments only seems to be deepened by the work of his contemporary Ignaz Goldziher, who demonstrated that a vast number of Hadith, accepted even in the most rigorously critical Muslim collections, were outright forgeries from the late 2nd-8th and 3rd-9th centuries - and, as a consequence, that the meticulous isnads which supported them were utterly fictitious3.

For example, there is a 'Hadith' that states fasting on the Day of Ashura (10th Muharram) is highly recommended, on grounds that it is the day Noah's (a.s.) Ark again came to rest upon the earth, the day that Ibrahim (a.s.) was saved from the fire, the day that Yusuf (a.s.) was removed from the well and the day Yunus (a.s.) was released from the stomach of the whale - grounds that provide the rationale for many Muslims' commemoration of Ashura.

They celebrate that day simply because that is what is done in their culture. Few question if such celebration was observed during the Prophet's lifetime, or even why those days should be remembered at all. Many are blissfully ignorant that these so-called ahadith were forged in order to direct Muslim public attention away from the Umayyad slaughter of the Prophet's grandson Husayn (a.s.) on that date.

Other than the gift of faith itself, Islam does not require Muslims to believe in any things that appear specious in the light of intellectual analysis.

7.3 Modernization, not Westernization

Muslim decline at the end of the 19th century coincided with the emergence of European power. The challenge of modernity came in the wake of European encroachment on Muslim lands at the height of the age of Western Imperialism. This elicited a variety of responses in different parts of the Islamic world. In its attempt to check and contain European domination, the Ottoman Empire pursued a policy of rapid modernization. At its outset, attention centered upon the importation of European weaponry, military organization and industrial plant technology; moves to introduce civil society and the westernization of state institutions rapidly followed. The rationale was to infuse into the Muslim way of life the elements it clearly lacked, such as European-style governmental institutions and the inherent values that went with them. This then became a quest for modernity.

In Turkey, a young officer named Mustafa Kemal, who in 1934 adopted the surname Ataturk - 'Father of the Turks' - believed that the word modernization meant 'copying'. Thus, he abolished the Arabic alphabet on which Turkish communication had been based for centuries and replaced it with the Roman alphabet used in the western world. This action effectively denied subsequent generations of Turks access to the centuries of accumulated scholarship held in Turkey's extensive and well-endowed libraries.

At the same time, the Iranian army commander Reza Shah Pahlavi ordered all Muslim women to remove their traditional head covering - Hijab- which he considered an important step in his drive to ‘copy’ the west and modernize his country. Police were ordered to rip headscarves off women who did not comply with his directive, and to arrest all men not attired in western-style clothing. His concession to public outrage was the granting of permission for five religious scholars to continue to wear the turban. In his drive to cleanse the Persian language of Arabic, an academic committee was appointed to substitute the thousands of Arabic words then in current usage, which they did with an assortment of strange and obscure ‘new Persian words’.

While the use of technology, science, industrial development and western-style marketing clearly yields benefits, there is no evidence to suggest that these can only be successfully utilized after all cultural, educational and other traditions of a people have been destroyed. The areas considered to be in need of modernity were as follows.

Administrative systems

Up until then, absolute control of all state matters tended to be held by kings or emperors, who propounded the belief that they ruled by divine right and were thus only answerable to God Himself. For subjects who believed such claims, it must have been apparent that God was little interested in them, for corruption, injustice and inequality abounded at every level of society. Their hopes must have been that modernization would transform authoritarianism into a democratic system in which the people could elect representatives to legislate and act on their behalf.

In the traditional caliphate system of Muslim countries, rather than the claim to rule by divine right, caliphs claimed that their authority was based upon their being successors to the Prophet (S).The difference was slight in as much as any who challenged the caliph were deemed to have challenged the Prophet of God and, via this, God Himself, and in that the effect of such sedition' resulted in the same harsh punishments as levied by kings and emperors. Further and most importantly, neither emperors nor kings or caliphs were able to provide any proof to substantiate their claims. Like the rose, which by any other name smells as sweet, the stench is the same, what­ever name is used for authoritarianism, corruption, injustice and inequality.

The winds of modernization struck Iran, Egypt and the whole Ottoman Empire at the start of the last century. In Iran, this brought scholars and intellectuals out in open revolt against the Qajar dynasty, forcing the last Qajar king to make limited concessions to 'the voice of the people'. In Egypt, calls for the revival of the caliphate resulted in King Farouk proclaiming himself 'caliph'. However, when the Ottoman Empire collapsed, the Muslim countries that formed it were subjugated by various European powers. It was agreed among them that their 'spheres of influence' entitled each to claim some degree of control or preferential status in different foreign territories. France was to oversee the affairs of Lebanon and Syria, while Britain was to do the same for Iraq and 'Transjordan'. Palestine was to have been under dual control, but France subsequently ceded all rights to Britain, who had also maintained a protectorate over Egypt since 1882. With the discovery of oil the United States was able to establish control over Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States.

The question is, in order to benefit from modernization, is it sufficient to simply 'copy' the outward manifestations of supposedly democratic countries, or should indigenous democratic administrations develop their own strategies to satisfy the needs of their cultures and faith?

Education

The Muslim world remained the centre of education for many centuries. The works of Avicenna (Ibn Sina), Averroes (lbn Rushd), Al-Biruni, Khwarazmi and a plethora of other scholars were for many centuries regarded by western scholars to be ultimate sources of reference in many scientific fields. A short visit to the British Museum, the Louvre or the Library of Congress will evidence the prolific scholarship of Muslim scholars through­ out the ages.

By the start of the 20th century, the Protestant work ethic in Europe and the laziness of the Muslim world had resulted in European scholarship surpassing that of the East. Notable Muslim families sent their children to study in the West and later made grants available for gifted Arab students from every walk of life. Regrettably, many graduates who returned home had adopted the lifestyles of the other students in their alma mater. Being young and ambitious they took pleasure not only in being qualified professionals, but in being acknowledged for their 'modern' and sophisticated European habits. To pour guests fine French wine appeared to them to be far more chic than to pour them traditional coffee from a dallah.

It is shocking to discover that in the 'Arab Human Development Report of 2002', no Muslim state is included in the table that records the volume of book sales in 27 world countries. To quote from it, 'The Arab world translates about 330 books annually, one-fifth of the number that Greece translates. The accumulative total of books translated since the ninth century is about 100,000 - almost the average for books that Spain translates in one year.'

Is it not high time Muslims modernized their educational systems and concentrated on the dissemination of knowledge, rather than simply aping the behavior of the European world?

Industry

The commercial success of the industrial revolution made the West the envy of the world. Mass production and its products so dazzled the public that in their rush to acquire them, they came to regard traditional skills as 'old-fashioned'. In the joy of new-found 'modernity', and belief that their production processes matched those of the leading industrial countries, it either did not occur to them, or the Muslim majority countries were simply not able, to develop overseas markets for their own production. In any event, most lands were not able to access the national wealth with which to build the modern infrastructures needed to develop their countries in the way that Asian 'Tiger Economies' have recently succeeded in doing.

By all United Nations and World Bank indicators, Arab countries trail behind other developing countries vis-a-vis job creation, education, technology and productivity. In listings of economies by gross domestic product (GDP), the highest-ranking Muslim majority country, Turkey (population 70.4 million) is 23rd, while Austria (population 8.3 million) is 22nd and Denmark (population 5.4 million) is 24th. In listings by manufacturing output, the highest ranking Muslim country, Egypt (population 78.9 million), is in 35th place, tying with Norway with a population of 4.6 million.

The above statistics underline that Muslim majority countries have not understood the meaning of modernity in the way that other peoples have, for many rely almost exclusively upon their oil resources.

To conclude, incorporation of the beneficial aspects of modernity does not necessitate copying characteristics that conflict with one's own cultural norms.

7.4 Ijtihad as means for modernization

Ijtihad is the Arabic word used to describe the processes by which Islamic legal rulings are deduced from legitimate sources, mainly the Qur’an and ahadith. It is derived from the Arabic root word juhd - that implies a need for considerable 'effort' or 'self-exertion'. In references to physical exertion juhd is used, and in references to intellectual exertion, ijtihad.

As contemporary problems and issues are not necessarily catered for in the main sources for Islamic Law (the Qur’an and ahadith), jurists - specialists in the field of Islamic Law - need to deduce appropriate rulings and provide clear guidance to deal with those issues. For example, the times to pray or fast in the Antarctic or in 'space'; considered Islamic views on organ transplants, genetic engineering, IVF, the maintenance of life by 'life support machines'; and hundreds of other contemporary issues. In their consideration of such issues, the Hanafi School of Law relies upon analogy - qiyas - and the Imamiyah upon intellectual reasoning.

Two methodologies are available to a mujtahid when faced with new subjects that need Islamic Law clarification:

1. To apply the basis of a known subject to another subject, and provide the same ruling (analogy - qiyas) was strongly supported by Abu­Hanifa. Alternatively, the 'spirit of a text', rather than the text itself, may be examined. This is referred to as the 'Study of the Objectives of Legislation', rather than the 'Study of that which is Apparent', an approach strongly supported by Maliki jurists and propounded by Imam Shatibi in his book Al-Muwafaqat fi Maqasid al-Shariah.

The majority of Sunni scholars regard Shatibi's approach to be the most practical methodology by which to reform ijtihad.

2. The Imamiyah, on the other hand, consider intellectual reasoning to be the fourth source of Islamic Law. (The consensus of learned scholars who reflect the opinion of the error-free Imams is the third source.) For the purpose of ijtihad, they undertake comprehensive examination of each hadith and - in conjunction with this valuable tool - see little purpose or benefit in qiyas or Shatibi's methodology. Furthermore, their lengthy debates have demonstrated 'qiyas' and 'the Objectives of Legislation' to be both speculative and not definitive tools for ijtihad. Detailed evidence to support their view was presented by Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Hakim (R.A) in his Principles of Comparative Jurisprudence - Al-Usul al-ammah lil Fiqh al-Muqarin.

Conditions of ijtihad

A jurist - mujtahid - must be a competent Muslim of sound mind with the intellectual capacity to form independent judgements. In many ahadith, the mujtahid is considered to be a successor to the Prophet .This is in respect of the ability to elaborate on rulings and guide the community to 'Things that please Allah'. Trustworthiness, reliability and righteousness are thus key qualities of a mujtahid. Those who fail to meet one or more of these requirements are disqualified from undertaking ijtihad.

Shahid II (the Imami mujtahid, d.966 AH) said,

Knowledge of the following six introductory studies is essential in the process of ijtihad: Theology, Principles of Jurisprudence, Arabic grammar, Morphology, Lexicology and an unquestionable comprehension of the Qur’an, Sunnah, Consensus and Intellectual reasoning.4

Ibn Abd al-Shakur Hanafi scholar said,

Ijtihad requires Faith, knowledge of the Qur’an, at least of the 500 ayat that deal with rulings, knowledge of the Sunnah - at least of the 1,200 ahadith that deal with jurisprudence - ability to identify the authenticity of narrators and a familiarity with consensus. However, being righteous is only required for those who accept his fatawa.5

Al-Ghazali (Shafi'i scholar, d. 505 AH) said,

While eight branches of knowledge are needed for ijtihad, four are essential, the others being only introductory. The essentials are (Qur’an, Sunnah, Consensus, and Intellect. The introductory ones are, Methodology of Argument, Arabic Grammar, knowledge of ‘abrogator and the abrogated’, and ability to recognize authentic ahadith.6

Al-Qarafi (Maliki scholar) offered a similar statement to Al-Ghazali's in his book Sharh Tanqih al-Fusul, p.194.

Ibn Qudamah (Hanbali scholar) said,

The mujtahid must have complete comprehension of the Qur’an, Sunnah, Consensus, Presumption of Continuity and Analogy. As for knowledge of the Qur’an, he must be well-versed in the 500 ayat concerned with rulings, not necessarily by having committed them to memory, but knowledge of how to refer to them when needed.

As for Sunnah, he must be well acquainted with the ahadith that concern rulings, regardless of them being many or limited. Knowing that a hadith in question has not been abrogated is sufficient for the process of ijtihad. Differentiation between strong and weak hadith is a further requirement.

As for consensus, it is sufficient to know if the issue in question has been dealt with by previous mujtahids or if no precedent exists. Knowledge of Grammar and Arabic language, ability to recognize - both explicit and ambivalent texts, what is literal and what metaphorical, what is general and what is specific - are essential requirements in the process of Ijtihad.7

Al-Shawkani (Zaidi scholar) said, 'There are five requirements for a mujtahid:

1. Comprehensive knowledge of the Qur’an and ahadith.

2. Comprehensive knowledge of the issues that apply to consensus.

3. Comprehensive knowledge of the Arabic language to enable him to arrive at conclusions from the Qur’an and ahadith.

4. Comprehensive knowledge of the Principles of Jurisprudence.

5. Ability to recognize the abrogator and the abrogated.8

Examples of contemporary ijtihad

Insurance

Insurance, one of the more recent types of contract, was unknown to Muslim jurists before the last century. When it was introduced, jurists tried to apply general principles to this new type of contract:

One opinion was that insurance is prohibited by Islam. This was supported by many jurists in Egypt, in addition to a few in Najaf and Qum. These based their opinions on one or other of the following justifications:

1. That no such contract was known at the time of the Prophet (S), the companions or the Imams (a.s.). They claimed that only contracts of the types known by the above categories can be considered to be binding.

2. Insurance leads to ambiguity and lack of information. Despite pre­determined premiums being paid for x years, the final amount of any payout is not pre-determined and, indeed, may or may not even occur.

3. Because insurance is similar to earned interest - riba. As riba is prohibited, it is analogous that insurance needs to be also - when a person pays £500 per annum to insure their car so that they might receive £5,000 should it be written off. Such 'profiteering' ought to be regarded as earned interest.

As a matter of fact, riba applies specifically to loans, while 'profit', which may or may not result from an insurance contract, has nothing whatever to do with borrowing or lending.

4. Insurance contains risk, uncertainty and hazard - gharar. As it is reported in one hadith that 'The Prophet prohibited sales in which gharar plays any part', it follows that insurance cannot be permissible either.

A second opinion was that insurance represents a type of contract known at the time of the Prophet (S). This was suggested by a great jurist of Najaf, Shaykh Husayn Hilli, whose lectures, compiled by Sayyid Izzudin Bahr al­Uloom, appeared as Discourses on Jurisprudence - Buhooth Fiqhiyah. He suggested that insurance be recognized as a mutual agreement - sulh -or as a conditional gift.

Ayatollah al-Khoei accepted his opinion regarding conditional gifts and, according to his ruling, the same conditions apply to insurance as apply to such gifts. That is to say, the insured should regard, and undertake to 'gift', premium installments with the clear understanding that the insurer will return the amount mentioned in the policy, as and when the policy conditions apply.

A third opinion is that insurance is indeed an independent contract, which meets all the requirements needed for agreements to be valid in Islamic Law. None of the justifications for its invalidity apply as insurance agree­ments are of the type made at the time of the Prophet (S) - This is the currently favored opinion of the existing Imamiyah jurists.

In Vitro Fertilization -IVF

When artificial insemination was first discussed, Muslim jurists expressed differing opinions.

One opinion was that it is Haram for one of the following reasons:

1. That it would entail non-mahram doctors touching the pudenda of Muslim women.

2. That it would require masturbation to obtain semen.

3. And, according to many Sunni jurists, because they thought it akin to fornication - zina. They based their opinion on the analogy - qiyas - that as adultery is a major and prohibited sin, IVF must be prohibited too.

A second opinion rejects the validity of qiyas for this subject matter on the basis of the technical meaning of the term zina. In Islamic Law, this refers specifically to an act of physical intercourse - to be precise, when a male inserts his penis into the vagina of a female who is not his wife. IVF clearly does not involve any such act. As to members of a medical team touching the private parts of the subjects, we need to consider and weigh the necessity of both of these acts: a) to help a woman desperate to conceive and fulfill her biological motherhood function; and b) to involve a medical team. There are invariably sizeable sections in books on Principles of Jurisprudence, dedicated to the Table of Priorities - Tazahum. For certain categories a mujtahid will refer to these in order to examine the priority of one circumstance over another. As for masturbation, there are alternative and permissible means to obtain semen.

One may use the needed fertilized eggs and request the others be destroyed. To be on the safe side, one should have someone witness that they are destroyed and not misused. Such action is not regarded as abortion, as by definition this can only occur after a fertilized egg is lodged in the womb.

As experts in any field of endeavor may hold different opinions, jurists too sometimes have differing viewpoints.

7.5 Secularism versus Fundamentalism

As the Muslim world has not lived through the industrial revolution or the development of the commercial institutions that have fashioned the modern world, the concept and character of modernization was misunderstood and misinterpreted in Muslim majority lands. In consequence, misguided attempts to imitate the 'West' led to a growing rift between 'conservative' Muslims and those intent on reform.

During the 1960s, the current of socialism that swept over the Middle East indirectly promoted communism. In Iraq, Syria, Egypt, Libya and many other Muslim countries, activists urged the public to reject religion as the 'opiate of the masses', because they said it prevented social advancement and progress. With inferences that space travel evidences that God does not exist, that intellectuals are all atheists and other ideas, activists urged the Muslim public to regard Shairah Law as redundant and to adopt the modern cure-all solution for society's ills called secularism.

In counterattack, Islamic scholars - such as Hasan Al-Banna, Sayyid Qutub and Muhammad Al-Ghazali in Egypt; Muhammad Baqr Al-Sadr, Baqir al-Sharif Al-Qarashi and Muhammad Amin Zayn Al-Din in Iraq; Murtadha Mutahari in Iran; Abul Ala Maududi in India, Muhammad Mahdi Shams Uddin and Muhammad Husayn Fadlulah in Lebanon; Malik bin Nabi in Algeria, to list only a few - whose unstinting efforts defended the faith, refuted that secular heresy and inspired Muslims throughout the world.

However, the collapse of the Soviet Union, destruction of the Berlin Wall, end of the cold war, and emergence of a new world order exacerbated the differences and animosity between secularists and believers. This gradually drove many Muslims to conclude that rational opposition to the war against religion was doomed to fail and that the only option left open to them was to completely reject Imperialist power, symbolized by American domination of the Muslim world and its influence over their leaders.

Globalization is the face of the new world order and Muslim resistance to its negative features inspired the new label 'fundamentalist'. Today, the whole world is aware that Imperialists are waging a war against 'fundamentalist' Muslims; the former claim that reasons of national security require the utter destruction of the latter. Thus, they employ, without restraint or hindrance, every possible means available to them, even when those entail unprovoked attack, utter disregard for basic human rights or contraventions of civilized norms of ethical behavior. On the other hand, the so-called fundamentalists believe that the term 'axis of evil' does not apply to them, but to the very people who coined it, in order to vilify them.

However, it must be made clear to both sides that torture, maiming and killing are condemned by all legal systems - religious as well as secular. Such acts are despicable, depraved and monstrous violations, regardless of who the perpetrators are, or the claims they use to justify their actions - be those intentional, or explained away as 'collateral damage'. All are equally disgusting, intolerable, shameful and utterly unacceptable, and serve only to stoke up hatred.

  • 1. Al-Asfar al-Arbaah, Vol.1, p.117.
  • 2. Al-Kafi,Vol. 2, p.352; Bihar al-Anwar,Vol. 70, p.22.
  • 3. Muslim Studies II, On the Development of the Hadith, pp.82-3. Humphreys, R Stephen. Islamic History -A Framework for Inquiry. I.B.Tauris/Princeton University Press. 1991.
  • 4. Al-Rawdah al-Bahiyya, The Brilliant Garden, Vol. t, p.236.
  • 5. Musallam al-Thubut, Vol. 2, p.320.
  • 6. Al-Mustasfa, Vol. 2, p.101-03.
  • 7. Rawlat al-Nazer, p.190.
  • 8. Irshad al-Fuhul, p.250.