‘Abaya/Chador - full-body cloaks sometimes with a smaller headscarf beneath them.
‘Adil - righteous.
Ahadith - see hadith.
Ahl al-Bayt - household of the Prophet Muhammad (S).
Al-Haqq - The Ultimate Truth (One of Allah's Most Beautiful Names)
Allahu Akbar - Allah is the Most Great.
Amin - trustworthy
Al-salamu alaykum - May Allah grant you peace.
Al-Yasa’ (a.s.)- Elisha.
Ahmad - commendable or laudable.
Ahwal - level of attainment of a spiritual journey.
‘Ash’arite school of Islamic theology that supports tradition over reason.
Asr, Salat al-·Asr- afternoon prayer.
Adhan - call to prayer.
Ayah (pl. ayat) - lit. a sign.In Qur’anic terminology, a verse.
Ayub (a.s.) - Job.
Bayt al-Mal- treasury.
Chador - see ‘Abaya
Chingiz-Khan - Genghis Khan.
Dawud (a.s.)- David.
Dhikr - remembrance.
Dhikr Allah - remembrance of Allah
Du’a - prayer or supplication.
Fadilat al-Waqt - the preferred time for offeringeach prayer.
Fajr al-Kathib - false dawn.
Fajr al-Sadiq - true dawn.
Fajr, Salat al-Fajr - dawn, the prayer offered at dawn.
Fatwa (pl. fatawa) - independent legal opinion/s.
Fiqh - jurisprudence.
fitrah - innate. Pure nature of human beings.
Gharar - risk,lack of information.
Ghufailah - two voluntary raka·at offered between Maghrib and ‘Isha'.
Ghusl - to bathe the whole body, also known as the greater ablution.
Hadith (pl. ahadith) report or saying of the Prophet Muhammad (S) and the error-free Imams (a.s.).
Hajj - pilgrimage.
Halal - lawful.
Haqiqah - complete truth.
Haram - unlawful.
Harun (a.s.) - Aaron.
Hasanah - good deed.
Haya' - modest behaviour.
Hayd’ - menstruation and its period.
Hijab (lit. complete protection) - women's modest dress and head covering.
Husn - beauty or goodness.
Ibrahim (a.s.) - Abraham.
‘Id - celebration
Ih’san - doing good.
Ijtihad - to deduce rulings from their sources, that is the Qur’an and ahadith.
Ilyas (a.s.) - Elijah.
Imamiyah Shiah. Those who defer to the Imams (a.s.) from the Prophet's (S) progeny.
Injil - the Bible.
Insh'a-Allah - God willing.
Iqamah - call to stand up for prayer.
Ismah – being free from error or sin.
Isa (a.s.)- Jesus.
Isha', Saatal-Isha' - evening prayer, which may be offered until midnight.
Ishaq (a.s.) - Isaac.
Ismail (a.s.) - Ishmael.
Isnad - 'chain' of those who are known to have narrated a hadith.
Isra'il - Israel.
Istihadah - non-menstrual bleeding.
Istihsan - preference of one kind of analogy over another.
Istikharah - to petition Allah to guide one to all that is good.
Jami - central mosque of a city.
Janabah - religious impurity that is the result of sexual intercourse.
Jibra'il - Gabriel.
Juhd - strive.
Ka·bah - 'house of God' in Makkah.
Kalam - Islamic theology, speech.
Khair - good
Khidr - a renowned person who is traditionally acknowledged to have received the Divine gift of great wisdom.
Khimar - a long capelike veil - from the head to just above the waist - that completely covers the hair, neck and shoulders leaving the face clear.
Lut (a.s.) - Lot.
Madinah - City, lslamically used for the city where the Prophet lived and died.
Maghrib, Salat al-Maghrib - The prayer offered after sunset when dusk falls and the sky darkens.
Mahabbah - Love.
Mahram - A person with whom marriage is not lawful,e.g.brother, sister, mother, father, aunt, uncle etc.
Makkah - the holiest city in Islam where the Prophets Ibrahim (a.s.) and Isma'il (a.s.) built the Kaabah. The birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad and place of pilgrimage for Muslims.
Makkan - relating to Makkah.
Malakut - Celestial realm.
Maqamat - spiritual position.
Maryam (a.s.) -Mary.
Mathhab - School of law.
Mawla - guardian, being in charge, and master, as in Ali (a.s.) is mawla.
Mawt - death.
Mihrab - niche in the wall of a mosque to indicate the qiblah.
Mi"raj - the Prophet Muhammad's journey to 'the heavens' and back.
Mizan - beam-balance scale.
Mujtahid - jurist.
Mu’min (pl. mu’minin) - true believers.
Musa (a.s.) - Moses.
Murtazilite in Islamic theology - supporter of reason.
Nafilah (pl. Nawafil) - voluntary prayers.
Najis al-'Ayn - impure initself.
Nifas - childbirth.
Niqab - a veil to cover a woman's face leaving only the area around the eyes
Niyyah - intention.
Nuh (a.s.) - Noah.
Qada - to make up for missed duties.
Qarabah - kinship.
Qiblah - the direction (of the Kab’ah in Makkah) that Muslims face when they pray.
Qiraah - recitation
Qiyam - standing upright.
Qiyas - analogy.
Qunut - humble invocation.
Quraish - a famous Arabian clan.
Raka’ah (pl. raka’at) - cycles for standing,bowing and prostrating during prayer.
Ruku - to bow before the Lord. A position during prayer.
Sahabah - companion.
Sajdah (pl. sujud) - to prostrate. A position during prayer.
Sajdah al-Sahw - a prostration made for any mistake during prayer.
Salah (pl. Salat) - the canonical form of Islamic prayer.
Salam - greetings of peace.
Salit al-Ihtyat - precautionary prayer.
Sayyi'ah - bad deed.
Shari - legal.
Shariah - Islamic law.
Shaytan - Satan.
Shiah - those who followed the Islamic teaching of Ali (a.s.) after the Prophet (S)
Sidr - Leaves of the 'Lote Tree'.
Silsilah - lit. chain, chronological list of teachers or guides.
Subhana Allah - Allah is glorified.
Sujud see Sajdah.
Sulayman (a.s.) - Solomon.
Sulh - amicable treaty or agreement.
Sunnah (lit. practice) - in Hadith terminology, the Prophet's (a.s.) tradition, sayings and way of life.
Sunni - those who follow the caliphs after the Prophet (S)
Surah - a division of the Qur’an.
Surat al-Fatiha - the opening surah of the Qur’an.
Tabiun - the generation that succeeded the companions.
Takbir - to state that 'Allah is Most Great' - Allahu Akbar.
Tariqah (pl. turuq) - way, path.
Tasbih - glorification.
Tashahud - declaration of faith.
Tawhid - belief in the Divine Unity of Allah,Oneness.
Tayammum - to perform ablution without water.
Tazahum - table of priorities.
Tazkyah - purification.
Thaqalain - the Qur’an and the progeny of the Prophet (S)
Ummah - the Muslim nation.
Umrah - minor pilgrimage.
Ut properly oud, - a musical instrument used by Arabs.
Waqf - charity or endowment.
Wila (see Wilayah)
Wilayah - authority, assistance, love, guardianship.
Wudu - 'ablution in preparation for prayer.
Yabya (a.s.) - John.
Yakub (a.s.)- Jacob.
Yunus (a.s.) - Jonah.
Yusuf (a.s.) - Joseph.
Zakah (pl. zakat) an Islamic religious annual welfare tax due on specific commodities.
Zakaria (a.s.) - Zacharias.
Zina - adultery.