In the past lesson we learned about the Najasat (impurities), which are to be cleansed so that one becomes Tahir [pure] for the Salat. In this lesson we will learn about the Mutahhirat (purifiers) which do away with the Najasah and make us Tahir. These Mutahhirat are:
Water, earth, the sun, Istihalah [transformation], changing, Islam, consequentiality, the removal of the very Najasah from man's inside and the body of the animal, absence, the going (losing) of two-thirds of the heated or boiled substance, the Istibra of the Halal animal and transfer. Each one of these make the Mutanajjis Tahir in its own particular way.
It is the pure water which purifies us and the things from the Najasah, and makes purity from the Wudu by means of Ghusl or Wudu. It is the absolute or the natural water which is free from Najasah or any additional substance. Allah, the Exalted, says:
"And We sent down purifying water from the sky" (25:48)
Islam is the religion of purification and cleanliness (Nazafah). It rejects filth and Najasah. Hence, it makes it Wajib (obligatory) to purify our bodies, clothes and places of our Sujud from the Najasat, such as urine, faeces, blood, dogs, pigs, Maytah, etc.. It is also Wajib to perform the Wudu before the Salat.
We cleanse the Najasah and remove it with water. We perform the Wudu with water, too. The water, with which we purify ourselves and perform our Wudu is stipulated ac; follows:
1. It must be natural water, such as rain, river, sea, well, or tap water, which is in our houses and towns, and the like. Whereas the unnatural water, like the water we extract from the plants and fruits is not allowed to be used for Taharah.
2. It must be absolute, that is, free from any added substance changing its colour, taste or smell, such as perfume, soap, pigments, fruit juice, and the like. So, if water is mixed with perfume, pigments, or fruit juice to the extent of changing its quality, it must not be used to perform Wudu or Ghusl nor to be used to purify our bodies, clothes or utensils from Najasah.
3. The water with which we perform the Wudu or Ghusl, or purify ourselves from Najasah, must be Tahir and mixed with no najasah. If a drop of urine or blood dropped in a jug of water, for example, or if a dog drank from the small basin from which we perform the Wudu, the water would become Najis and we must not use it to perform the Wudu or Ghusl or purify ourselves from the Najasat.
4. The water with which we intend to perform the Wudu must be Halal, that is, neither stolen nor usurped, as Allah, the Glorified, prohibited us from taking people's properties without their consent. He does not like us to steal water or usurp it to perform the Wudu or the Ghusl.
1. Water purifies things which have become Mutanajjis with urine, by rinsing them twice, if the quantity of the water is little1, such as a quantity to fill a jug. But the utensils need to be rinsed three times with it.
2. If water is plentiful, such as river, sea or tap-water, etc., it purifies the object from the Najasah simply by removing the Najasah with it, and there would be no need for rinsing it twice or more.
3. If a rat2 died in a utensil, it should be rinsed seven times with water so as to purify it. As to other Najasat, such as blood and faeces, the Mutanajjis objects can be purified by merely removing the Najasah with water. There will be no need to rinse them twice.
4. If a dog drank from a utensil it must be "washed" once with Tahir soil mixed with some water, then it should be rinsed twice3 with water, and it may also become Tahir if rinsed once with plenty of water.
5. When we wash things with little water to make them Tahir, the water must be wrung out of wringable objects twice, after the first rinsing, and also after the second one if the object became Najis because of urine. And the water remaining during and after rinsing a Najis object, is Najis.
Dry and Tahir earth4 makes the sole of a foot or a shoe Tahir, if it’s Najasah was caused by walking. It becomes Tahir by merely removing the Najasah by rubbing them on the earth or walking on it.
The sun purifies the earth and other big, immovable objects, such as doors, windows, fruit-trees and vegetables in the fa1ms. etc., which may have become Mutanajjis, provided that the Najasah is removed first, and the Mutanajjis thing is moist when exposed to the sun and dried by its rays.5
If a Najis, or Mutanajjis, thing is transformed into a different material with different characteristics inasmuch as to become something else, it becomes Tahir. Such as faeces turning into ashes by fire, or urine transforming into vapour, etc. This is called Istihalah.
It happens when the nature of something changes into something else, by itself or by industrial process, such as when wine changes into vinegar. This wine that has changed into vinegar is Tahir.
It means that when a Kafir embraces Islam he becomes Tahir together with his belongings.
As a consequence of embracing Islam, his things which were considered Najis due to his previous state of Kufr (disbelief), become Tahir. That is, when a Kafir to Islam all his belongings, such as utensils, clothes and other things owned by him become Tahir. As such, the minor children of a father, a mother or a grandfather embracing Islam will, consequently, become Tahir, too.
Similarly, the vessels of wine consequently become Tahir, if the wine in them changed into vinegar. Likewise, the hands of the one who gives the Ghusl to a dead, the place on which the dead is lain while being washed, and the clothes the washer wears, become Tahir as a result of the dead becoming Tahir.
For example, if the inside of a man's mouth becomes Najis due to bleeding, it will become Tahir as soon as it stops bleeding, and there would be no need to rinse it with water.
The body of an animal becomes Tahir by the removal of the Najasah from it without having to wash it. For example, the Mutanajjis beak of a bird becomes Tahir as soon as the Najasah and its moisture are removed from it; likewise is the body of an animal and the bloodstained mouth of a cat.
It means that when a Muslim-known to be careful about the Taharah if his body, clothes furniture and belongings become Najis, is absent for a period enough for him to make Tahir what had become Najis, and we saw him usually perform what requires Taharah, such as the Salat, by using what we knew to be Najis, we take him to have purified his belongings.
Some Faqihs believe that the vine-juice remains Najis if it is boiled, unless two-thirds of it evaporates, and hence it becomes Tahir, as well as its container.
If the Halal animals, such as camels, cows and sheep, stopped eating man's faeces, their droppings and urine become Tahir.
If a Najis or a Mutanajjis is transferred into another material and becomes part of it, it becomes Tahir, such as man's blood sucked by a mosquito.
Q1. Count and write the Mutahhirat which make things Tahir and remove the Najasah.
Q2. Define the absolute and the mixed waters, stating which one is not to be used for purification.
Q3. How would you purify the following Mutanajjis objects?
a. A solid thing, such as a wall.
b. A dress that is Mutanajjis by urine.
c. A basin in which a dead rat has been found.
d. A utensil licked by a dog.
Q4. Answer with "Yes", or "No".
a. Can the muddy earth purify the sole (of the foot)?
b. Would wine become Tahir if it changed into vinegar?
Q5. Give an example for a Mutanajjis which becomes Tahir by consequence.
Q6. If a person's mouth bled, then the bleeding stopped inside the mouth, must he wash the inside of his mouth with water before performing the Salat? Why?
Q7. You have a friend committed to the precepts of the Shari’ah. You saw him using a utensil which was Mutanajjis two days ago during which he was absent. Tell the judgement concerning that utensil.
Q8. What is the judgment concerning the blood coming out of the body of a mosquito which had sucked it from a man's body? Explain in details.
- 1. The “little water” is a quantity less than a “Kurr”, that is, less than 27 cubic span in volume, or 357, 200 c.cm. As to the ""Plentiful water", it is that which amounts to 11 "Kurr"'or more, such as the river water, the tap water, the pool and the reservoir with the capacity of a “Kurr” or more.
- 2. A large wild rat is meant here, not the domestic small rat or mouse.
- 3. Malik says that if a utensil was licked by a dog, it should be rinsed seven times, not because of the dog being Najis, but as a ritual. The Shafi'is and the Hanbalis say that it must be rinsed seven times including dry wash with soil.
- 4. By "earth" we mean its general comprehensive meaning including soil, rocks, sand, bricks, gypsum, etc.
- 5. The Hanafis say that it becomes Tahir, whether it has been dried by the sun or by the wind.