Allah, the Exalted, says:
"O you who believe! when it is called to Salat on Friday hasten to remembrance of Allah and leave off trading; that is better for you if you know." (Suratul-Jumuu'ah/9).
Friday Salat is one of the most important Wajib worshipping acts in Islam, and it is one of its greatest rites. This Salat was ordained on the first week after the arrival of the Messenger of Allah (s) in the Luminous Al-Madinah.
After four days of his stay, he ordered the Muslims to congregate in the valley of Quba, where he delivered the two sermons of the Jumu'ah, then he performed Salatul-Jumu’ah followed by the Muslims. That was the first Salatul-Jumu'ah in Islam.
Salatul-Jumu'ah enhances worshipping, social, pol itical, and educational objectives. It is a weekly meeting attended by the Muslims to listen to the Khutbahs [sermons] of the Jumu'ah and to their contents of directives, precepts and news. In these congregations people meet together, know and help one another.
That is why the Qur'an encourages and orders us to go to the Salat, leaving everything related to trade, work, and business, so as to remember Allah, feel fear of Him and love for Him and grow accustomed to meeting Muslims and to act collectively.
Salatul-Jumu'ah is a discipline and order. It is a defined act aiming at educaring, teaching and instructing the Muslims, through directives and guidance, as well as giving them social and political information. About the importance of this Salat the Messenger of Allah (s) says: "No foot has walked to the Jumu'ah unless Allah forbade its body to be burned in the Fire".1
[To be memorized]
The Messenger of Allah (s) ordered us in one of his sayings to listen to the two sermons of the Jumu'ah. He is quoted to have said: "Whoever drivels in the Jumu'ah will have no Jumu'ah reward”2
[To be memorized]
Consequently, one of the precepts of the Jumu'ah is that it is Wajib to listen to the two Khutbahs, to realize their benefits, so that they may be to the mu$alfls' advantage.
Salatul-Jumu'ah consists of two Rak’ahs, like the morning Salat, preceded by two Khutbahs (sermons); the first longer than the second, with a short interval between them Salatul-Jumu'ah is performed instead of the usual Salatuz-Zuhr.
1. Salatul-Jumu'ah is to be performed in congregation, in a gathering of no less than five persons3, i.e. four persons besides (an equitable)4 Imam, that is, he must be known for being pious and God fearing. Salatul-Jumu'ah would not be Wajib, if this number of persons did not gather, then the usual Salatuz-Zuhr should be performed.
2. Another condition is that the Imam must make the Niyyah of leading Salatul-Jumu'ah.
3. All the conditions prescribed for the daily Salats are required in this respect, too, such as the Taharah, facing the Qiblah, etc.
4. Salatul-Jumu'ah is not Wajib for the traveller, women and the sick.
5. If Salatul-Jumu'ah was held in a mosque, it would be Wajib (obligatory) on those who live within two Farsakhs from that mosque.5 And hose who live farther than that distance may not attend it.
6. No more than one Salatul-Jumu'ah is to be held within a distance less than three religious miles (some 5.5 km) Therefore, if two or more Salatul-Jumu’ah were held within this distance. All would be Batil, except the one which was started earlier than the others. This is in order that the Muslims may not disperse, but to be united.
Q1. What is Salatul-Jumu'ah? What are its effects on the individual and the society?
Q2. Is the Khutabah (sermon) in Salatul-Jumu'ah Wajib'? Is it Wajib on the Musallis to listen to it?
Q3. How is Salatul-Jumu'ah held?
- 1. "Wasa'ilush-Shi'ah'', by Al-Hurrul-Amili,vol. 5, p. 70.
- 2. "Tuhaful-Uqul An Alir-Rasul" by Al-Harrani.
- 3. The Malikis say that the least number of people should be 12 in addition to the Imam. The Shafi’is and the Hanbalis say: “40 persons including the Imam" The Hanafis say: "There should be at least 5 persons."
- 4. The Hanafis accept the attendance of the ruler, even if not equitable.
- 5. Some 11 km.