When it becomes difficult to use water for the Ghusl and Wudu, it will be Wajib to perform the Tayammum with Tahir (pur and clean) earth, like soil, sand, pebbles, rocks or any part of the Tahir earth. It is also allowed to perform the Tayammum with anything from which dust may rise if beaten, such as carpets, textiles, etc., in case one could not perform the Tayammum with earth.
The Tayammum was enjoined to replace the Ghusl or the Wudu which in certain cases is allowed by the Qur'an, verse 6, SuratulMaidah:
".....and if you are junub [unclean] make yourselves Tahir [pure] And if you are sick or on a journey, or one of you comes from the closet (w.c.), or you have touched the women, and you find no water, then perform the tayammum with clean good soil by wiping your faces and hands with some of it. Allah does not desire to put a burden on you, but He wishes to purify you and perfect His grace upon you so that you may give thanks."(5:6)
1. In case we could not obtain water, or its price was too expensive and would badly affect our budget, or trying to obtain it would be humiliating and disgraceful, or if the amount of our water was only enough to be used for drinking, in a manner that we would face thirst if we used it for the Wudu or the Ghusl. In such a case we would be allowed to perform the Tayammum and keep the water to preserve our lives; when, for instance, we are travellers in the desert, or soldiers in the warfront.
2. In case using water would be harmful to us because of some illness, or very severe coldness, etc.
3. In case the time left for performing the Wajib is too short to allow a Ghusl or a Wudu.
4. When the water we have is only enough to remove a Najasah from the body, we remove it and do the Tayammum for the Salat, as we are not allowed to keep the Najasah and use the water for the Wudu.
5. Performing the Tayammum gives us the right to perform other ritual acts which require Taharah, though this is true as long as the excuse for the Tayammum is still there. And when it is no longer there, one will have to perform the Ghusl or the Wudu before performing such ritual acts which require Taharah.
The aforementioned paragraph told us about the cases in which we must perform the Tayammum. Hereunder we learn how to perform it;
1. The intention: One is to inwardly express the intention that: "I perform the Tayammum for the pleasure of Allah the Exalted."
2. To hit the earth with the palms of both hands together, wipe the forehead with them, starting from the hair-line of the head, continuing to the top of the nose and the eyebrows. Then, the back of the right hand, from the wrist to the tips of the fingers, is wiped with the palm of the left hand, then the same thing is done to the back of the left hand with the palm of the right hand.
Q1. Explain Allah's saying: "...and if you find no water, perform the Tayammum with clean earth, by wiping your faces and hands with it..."
Q2. Count and explain the cases in which we have to perform the Tayammum.
Q3. How would you judge somebody who performed the Tayammum, while there was Najasah on his hand, would his Tayammum be valid or Batil?