Proper Nouns and Demonstrative Pronouns

80. What is a proper noun?

81. What is a demonstrative pronoun?

80. A proper noun is a noun that denotes a specific person, animal or thing. For example: ﺇبراهیم (the name of a person) بَرق (the name of a horse) بیروت (the name of a city)

81. A demonstrative pronoun is a pronoun that denotes something specific that is sensed. The following are demonstrative pronouns:

• For things that are close:

    1. هذا (this, m.)

    2. هذانِ (these two, m.)

    3. هَوُلاء (these, m.)

    4. هذهِ (this, f.)

    5. هَاتانِ (these two, f.)

    6. هَوُلاء (these, f.)

• For things that are medium range:

    1. ذاکَ (that, m.)

    2. ذانِکَ (those two, m.)

    3. ﺃولئکَ (those, m.)

    4. تیکَ (that, f.)

    5. تانِکَ (those two, f.)

    6. ﺃولِوکَ(those, f.)

• For things that are far:

    1. ذلِکَ (that, m.)

    2. ذانّکَ (those two, m.)

    3. ﺃولالِکَ (those, m.)

    4. تِلکَ (that, f.)

    5. تانّکَ (those two, f.)

    6. ﺃولالِکَ (those, f.)

• For places:

    1. هُنا(here)

    2. هُناکَ(there, medium range)

    3. هُنالِک تَمّ(there, far)