The Division of The Verb Into Passive and Active
47. What is an active verb?
48. What is a passive verb?
49. How is the form of the verb changed when it becomes passive?
47. An active verb is a verb whose actor is mentioned with it. For example: قَطَفَ الوَلَدُ تُفّاحَةً (the boy picked an apple)
48. A passive verb is a verb whose actor is erased while its objective compliment takes the actors place. For example: قُطِفَت تُفّاحَةٌ (an apple was picked)
49. A. If the passive verb is in the preterite tense - the letter before the last letter should be given a kasrah and all of the letters before it that had a vowel should be given a dummah. So, حَفِظَ would become حُفِظَ (he protected, was protected) and اِستَعلَمَ would become اُستُعلِمَ (he inquired, was inquired)
B. If the passive verb is in the aorist tense - the first letter should be given a dummah and the letter before the last should be given a fathah. So, یَحفَظُ would become یُحفَظُ and یَستَعلِمُ would become یُستَعلَمُ