167. What is a possessive noun?
168. What is the rule of possessive nouns?
169. What exceptions are there to this rule?
170. How is a possessive noun formed from a word ending in a hamzah?
171. How is a possessive noun formed from a word ending in a weak letter?
172. How is a possessive noun formed from a triliteral or quadriliteral word ending in an alif or yā'?
167. A possessive noun is a form that indicates a relationship between two things. For example: لبنانيٌّ (a man from Lebanon).
168. A. The noun is placed in the single masculine form and the last letter is given a kasrah then given yā's contracted together. For example: ناصرة (female helper) becomes ناصر (male helper) which becomes ناصريٌّ (from a helper). If the word is a broken plural the possessive noun can be formed from it or its singular form. For example: ملائکة (angels) becomes ملائکيٌّ or ملاکيٌّ (of the angels).
169. The following words are exceptions to this rule:
• مدینة becomes مدنيٌّ (a man from Medina)
• قریة (village) becomes قَرَويٌّ (a man from a village)
• حيّ (living) becomes حَیَويٌّ (a man from the living)
• ید (hand) becomes یَدَويٌّ (hand-made)
• أب (father) becomes أبَويٌّ (fatherly)
• ابن (son) becomes بَنَويٌّ (sonly)
• أخ (brother) becomes أخَويٌّ (brotherly)
• سنة (year) becomes سَنَويٌّ (yearly)
• لُقة (language) becomes لُغَويٌّ (literal)
• دَم (blood) becomes دَمويٌّ (of blood)
170. A noun ending in a hamzah:
• If the hamzah is a feminine hamzah it should be changed into a wāw, for example: بَیضاء (white) becomes بَیضاوِيٌّ (from white).
• If the hamzah is not a feminine hamzah then it can be changed into a wāw or it can remain, for example: سماء (sky) becomes سماويٌّ or سمائيٌّ (of the skies).
171. A noun ending in a weak letter is put into the possessive noun form by erasing the weak letter and then adding the yā's. مصطفیَ becomes مصطفيٌّ (from Mustafa).
172. If the word is a triliteral or quadriliteral word ending in a yā' or alif the last letter should be changed into a wāw and then the yā's should be added. For example: فَتیَ (young man) becomes فَتَوِيٌّ (of a young man).