Masculine And Feminine Nouns
149. What are masculine and feminine nouns?
150. How many feminine signs are there?
151. How many types of feminine nouns are there?
152. When is a femininity of a noun real?
153. How is a masculine noun (human or animal) made feminine?
154. How is an epithet made feminine?
155. Are there any exceptions to the rule regarding making an epithet feminine?
156. How many epithets are there that are used in the masculine and feminine sense with one word?
157. What are the rules regarding فعول with the meaning of an actor and فعیل with the meaning of an accusative?
158. What are the rules regarding فعیل with the meaning of an actor and فعول with the meaning of an accusative?
149. A masculine noun is that which indicates a male person or animal, for example: أب. A feminine noun is that which indicates femininity, for example: أم.
150. There are three feminine signs: the feminine tā', for example: عالِمَة, alif maqsūrah, for example: سَلمیَ, and an added alif mamdūdah, for example: حَسناء
151. There are three types of feminine nouns: grammatically, this is a noun that indicates masculinity but has a feminine sign, for example: مُعاویة, real, this is a noun that indicates femininity but does not have a feminine sign, for example: مریم, grammatically and real, this is a noun that indicates femininity and has a feminine sign, for example: لَطیفَة.
152. The real feminine noun is applied to four cases: feminine names, for example: مریم, nouns that are exclusive for females, for example: أخت, names of cities, civilizations, and tribes, for example: الشام, and the names of dual body parts, for example: عَین.
153. A masculine name (human or animal) is made feminine by adding the feminine tā' to the end of the word, for example سلیم becomes سلیمة.
154. Epithets are made feminine by adding a feminine tā' to the end of masculine epithets, for example: مُؤمن becomes مُؤمنة.
155. The exceptions to the rule of making epithets feminine are: epithets in the form فعلان, they are made feminine by putting them in the form فَعلیَ, for example سَکران becomes سَکرَیَ, and epithets in the form أفعَل which is made feminine in the form فَعلاء, for example أخضَر becomes خَضراء, and the superlative/comparative form which is made feminine in the form فُعلیَ, for example: أکرَم becomes کُرمیَ.
156. The epithets that are used for both feminine and masculine words in one form are: فَعَّالة مثل علَّامة و مِفعَال مثل مِفضال و مِفعیل مثل مِعطیر و فَعُول الفاعل مثل صَبور و فَعیل المفعول مثل قَتیل
157. Whenever فَعُول has the meaning of an actor and فَعیل has the meaning of an accusative they are used interchangeably with masculine and feminine words. If the described word is not mentioned a feminine tā' is added to it, for example: هذه جریحة.
158. Whenever فَعُول has the meaning of an accusative and فَعیل has the meaning of an actor the feminine tā' is always used to make it feminine, for example بَقرةٌ حَلوبة.