Corroboratives and Substitutes

59. What is a corroborative?
A corroborative is a word that emphasizes another word and is used to take away any doubts about the emphasized word being used figuratively. The words used to emphasize are:

نَفسٌ و عینٌ و کلٌّ و جمیعٌ

For example: زَارَني الأمیر نَفسُهُ (The commander visited me, himself.)
Or: سارَ الجیشُ کلّهُ (The army marched, all of it.)
The word 'himself' was used to emphasize the commander and to take away any doubt that the person coming to visit is the commander himself, not his servant or messenger.
The phrase 'all of it' was used to emphasize the army and used to take away any doubt that the whole army was meant not part of it.

60. What is a substitute?
A substitute is a word that follows what it is substituting, either all of it, part of it or something that resembles it.
For example: أخوک إبراهیمُ صدیقُنا (Your brother, Abraham, is our friend.)
Or: قرأتُ الکتابَ نصفَهُ (I read the book, half of it.)