Ma’ Accusative and the Exceptive After Ila
39. What is a ma' accusative?
A ma' accusative is a noun preceded by a wāw that has the meaning of with mentioned to describe what the action was performed with. For example: اِذهَب و الشّارعَ الجَدیدَ (Go on the new road.)
40. What is an exceptive after ila?
An exceptive after ila is a noun mentioned after the preposition ila which has a different ruling than what was mentioned before ila. For example: خَرَجَ التلامذةُ المَدرَسَةِ ﺇلا خالداً (The students left the school, except Khālid.) Here Khālid is the exceptive because it is mentioned after ila and is not part of the rule 'leave' which is related to the students.
41. When is it obligatory to put the exceptive after ila into the accusative state?
It is obligatory to put the exceptive after ila into the accusative state if the phrase before it is complete and positive, for example: یعیشُ الناسُ براحة إلا الکسلانَ (People live in comfort, except lazy people.) Here it is obligatory to put lazy people into the accusative case because the phrase before the ila is complete and positive.