Objective Compliments and Cognates

33. What is an objective compliment?
An objective compliment is a noun that receives the action of a verb, but does not change the structure of the verb. For example: بَرَی التلمیذُ قلَماً (The student sharpened a pencil.) In this sentence, pencil is the objective compliment because it received the verb to sharpen and does not affect the structure of the verb. Of course, if an objective compliment affects the structure of the verb it is a predicate and must be put in the nominative case.

34. What is a congnate?
A congnate is a noun that is mentioned after the verb:
• for emphasis: قَتَلَ الحارسُ اللّصّ قتلاً (The watchman murdered the thief a murder.)

• for explanation: ﺇصبِر صبراً جمیلاً (Be patient, a beautiful patience.)

• for numeration: دَقّتِ الساعةُ دَقّتَینِ (The watch ticked two ticks.)