HĀl Accusative

111. What is a hāl accusative?
A hāl accusative is a noun mentioned after a complete sentence in order to describe the state of the actor, the objective compliment, or the prefixed noun when the verb took place. The noun can be replaced by a nominal sentence. For example: جاء القائدُ ظافراً (The leader came in a state of victory.)

112. How many types of hāl accusatives are there?
There are three types of hāl accusatives:
• Single: جاء القائد ظافراً

• Sentence: اُطلُبِ العلم و أنتَ فتی (Seek knowledge while you are young.)

• Fragment: رأیتُ الهلالَ بینَ السحاب (I saw the crescent moon in between the clouds.)

113. What is the condition of the singular hāl accusative and what it refers to?
The condition of a singular hāl accusative is that it must be a non-apalistic indefinite noun and what it refers to must be definite. For example: زرتُ الحَيَّ عامراً (I visited the village while it was flourishing)

114. When is the hāl accusative a singular definite noun?
A singular hāl accusative is definite if it can be explained as being indefinite. For example:
جاء التلمیذُ وَحدَهُ (The student came alone.)

115. When is the hāl accusative a singular apalistic noun?
The singular hāl accusative is apalistic if it can be explained as a word derived from something. For example: کرَّ عليٌّ أسداً ('Alī returned like a lion.)

116. How many kinds of hāl sentences are there?
There are two types of hāl sentences: nominal and verbal.

117. What is the hāl sentence conditional on?
The condition of the hāl sentence is that it must have a connection with what it refers to either by:
• a pronoun, if it is a verbal sentence and it refers to a definite noun. For example: جاء الغلامُ یَرکُضُ (The servant came riding [an animal].)

• a wāw of hāl, if it is a nominal sentence. For example: خَرَجُوا مِن دِیارِهِم وَ هُم أُلُفٌ (They left their homes while they were in thousands.)