46. What is an annular?
An annular is a word that is added to an inchoative and predicate and changes their situation. An annular is either a verb (incomplete verbs or appropinquation verbs) or prepositions (particles which resemble a verb and the lā which denies a whole genus).
47. What is the rule of annulars if they are verbs?
If an annular is a verb it is added to an inchoative and predicate and makes the inchoative its subject and puts it in the nominative case and puts the predicate in the accusative case. For example:
کانَ الجوُّ صافیاً (The weather was clear.)
48. What are incomplete verbs?
Incomplete verbs are verbs that denote the state of a person or thing. They are not completed with the subject alone, rather they are in need of a predicate to complete the meaning as well. For example: کانَ الرجلُ مریضاً (The man was sick.)
49. How many incomplete verbs are there?
The incomplete verbs are:
• کانَ ، أصبح ، أضحیَ ، ظلَّ ، صار ، أمسیَ ، بات ، مادام All of these are conjugated in the preterite, aorist and imperative tenses.
• مازال ، ما فتیَ ، ما برح ، ما انفکَّ All of these are conjugated in the preterite and aorist tenses.
• لیسَ This incomplete verb is only conjugated in the preterite tense.
50. Are these incomplete verbs always incomplete?
No, sometimes they have complete meanings, just like any other regular verb. This is the case when they denote an event not a state. For example: کانَ لیلٌ (It was night.)
51. How many kinds of predicates of incomplete verbs are there?
The predicate of incomplete verbs is the same as the predicate of inchoatives in that they can be nouns, sentences, or fragments. For example: کان عليٌّ أسداً ('Alī was a lion.) or أصبَحتم في حزنٍ شدیدٍ (They were found in a heavy state of grief).
52. When does the predicate of an incomplete verb come before its subject?
The predicate of an incomplete verb comes before the subject in the same cases that was mentioned of the predicate of an inchoative coming before the inchoative.
53. Is it permissible to add a 'ba' to the predicate of an incomplete verb?
Yes, it is permissible to add a bā' to the predicate of an incomplete verb if:
• the incomplete verb is کان which is preceded by a negative word. For example: ما کان اللهُ بظالمٍ (Allah was not an oppressor.)
• the incomplete verb is لیس for example: لیس اللهُ بظلّام للعبید (Allah is not oppressive to servants.)
54. What makes the verb kāna stand out from all of its sisters?
Kāna stands out because it is added after a mā of wonder and it is erased with its subject after a conditional in or law. For example: الظالم هالکٌ و لو (کان الظالم) مَلِکاً (An oppressor will become destroyed even if (the oppressor was) a king.)
55. What is an appropinquation verb?
Appropinquation verbs are verbs that denote the closeness of an occurrence, hope of an occurrence, or the start of an action. Similar to the incomplete verbs, appropinquation verbs have a subject in the nominative case and a predicate in the accusative case. For example: کاد الولدُ یَغرقُ (The boy was about to drown.)
56. How many appropinquation verbs are there?
The appropinquation verbs are:
• کاد ، کَرَبَ ، أوشکَ which denote the closeness of an occurrence
• اخلَولَقَ ، حَریَ ، عسیَ which denote the hope of an occurrence
• أخَذَ ، جَعَلَ ، شَرعَ طَفِقَ علقَ هبَّ which denote the start of an action
57. Do the meanings of these verbs always have something to do with closeness?
No, sometimes they are used as transitive or intransitive verbs. In these cases they are like any other regular verb. For example: أخذتُ الکتابَ عنِ الطاولةِ (I took the book off of the table.)
58. What form is the predicate of an appropinquation verb in?
The predicate of appropinquation verbs is always a verb in the aorist tense. For example:
کاد الولدُ یَغرقُ