The Jussive Cases of the Aorist Tense
11. When is an aorist tense verb put into the jussive case?
An aorist tense verb is put into the jussive case if it is preceded by one of the sixteen jussive prepositions.
12. How many types of jussive prepositions are there?
There are two types of jussive prepositions, one that makes one verb jussive and the other that makes two verbs jussive.
13. How many jussive prepositions are there that make one verb jussive?
There are four jussive prepositions that make one verb jussive, for example:
• لَم , for example: لَم یَذهَب أحدٌ (Nobody came.)
• لَمَّا , for example: تَعَلَّمَ القراءَةَ و لَمَّا یَکتُب (He learned how to read and has not written.)
• The imperative lām, for example: لِتَطِب نَفسُکَ (Feel comfortable.)
• The prohibition lām, for example: لا تَیاس من رَحمةِ الله (Don't loose hope in Allah's mercy.)
14. How many jussive prepositions are there that make two verbs jussive?
There are twelve jussive prepositions that put two verbs into the jussive state. All of them are conditional. For example:
• إن , for example: إن تَکسل تَخسَر (If you are lazy you will loose.)
• إذما , for example: إذما تتعلَّم تتقدَّم (If you learn you will progress.)
• مَن , for example: مَن یَطلُب یَجد (Whoever searches will find.)
• ما , for example: ما تَفعَل أفعَل (Whatever you do, I will do.)
• مَهما , for example: مَهما تأمُر بالخیر أفعَله (Whenever you command something good I will do it.)
• أيّ , for example: أيُّ یَجتَهِد یَنجَح (Whoever strives will be successful.)
• کَیفَما , for example: کَیفَما تجلس أجلس (However you sit I will sit.)
• مَتی , for example: متی تَرجِع نُکرِمک (Whenever you return we will respect you.)
• أیَّان , for example: أیَّان تَسألني أجِبکَ (Whenever you ask me I'll answer you.)
• أینما , for example: أینما تَذهَب تَنجَح (Wherever you go you will succeed.)
• أنَّی , for example: أنَّی یَذهَب صاحبُ العلم یُکرَم (Wherever a scholar goes he will be respected.)
• حیثما , for example: حیثما تَسقط تَثبت (Wherever you fall you will remain.)
15. What are the two jussive verbs called?
The first jussive verb is called a conditional verb and the second jussive verb is called a result.
16. Are any of the jussive prepositions considered a noun?
All of the jussive prepositions are really nouns except إن and إذما . They are real prepositions.
17. Are all of the jussive prepositions declinable or indeclinable?
All of the jussive prepositions are indeclinable except أيُّ which is declinable.
18. When is the conditional إن implied?
The conditional إن is implied if it comes after a requisition and puts an aorist tense verb into the jussive state. For example: تَعلَّم تَفُز was originally إن تَتَعلُّم تَفز (If you study you will succeed.)
19. Is the conditional verb and its result in the aorist tense or the preterite tense?
The conditional verb and its result can be:
• Two aorist tense verbs, for example: إن تَصبِر تَظفَر (If you show patience you will be victorious.)
• Two preterite tense verbs, for example: إن صَبرتَ ظَفَرتَ (If you were patient you would have succeeded.)
• A combination of tenses, for example: إن تَصبر ظفرت or إن صبرت تظفر. If the first verb is in the preterite tense and the second in the aorist tense, the second verb can be put into the jussive or nominative cases.
20. When is it necessary to add a fā' to the result?
In the following six cases it is obligatory to add a fā' to the result:
• If the result is in the preterite tense preceeded by قد , for example: إن آمَنتَ فقد خلصتَ (If you believed you would have become pure.)
• If the result is made negative by ما or لن , for example: إن جاءني ضیفٌ فما أرُدُهُ (If a guest comes to me I will not reject him.)
• If the result is a requisition verb, for example: أن سَقَطَ عدُوُّکَ فلا تَسمَت بِهِ (If your enemy falls do not become happy about it.)
• If the result is an aplastic verb, for example: إن تَرَني أقل مالاً فعسیَ رَبِّي أن یُغنیَني (If you see me poor have hope that my Lord will make me rich.)
• If the result is preceded by a sīn or سوف , for example: إن زُرتَني فسأزورک (If you visited me I will soon visit you.)
• If the result is a nominal sentence, for example: مَهما أردت فأنّي مستعدٌّ لقضائه (Whenever you desire I will surely help you settle it.)
21. When is it permissible to add a fā' to the result?
In the following two cases it is permissable to add a fā' to the result:
• If the result is in the aorist tense and made negative by a لا , for example: إن تَدرُس فَلا تَخسَر (If you study you will not fail.)
• If the result is a positive aorist tense verb, for example: مَن یَطلُب فَیَجِد (Whoever searches will find.)
22. What state is the result in if a fā' is added to it?
If a fā' is added to the result, it is forbidden to put it in the jussive case, instead one must put it in the nominative case as a subjective compliment for an implied inchoative. For example: من یَطلب فَیَجدُ (Whoever searches will find.) is really: من یطلب فهو یجد
23. What function do the conditional ما ، مهما ، أي have?
The conditional ما ، مهما ، من ، أيُّ have the following conditions:
• Inchoative if followed by an intransitive verb. For example: أيُّ یجتهد ینجح (Whoever strives will be successful.)
• Objective compliment if followed be a transitive verb that has not taken an objective compliment. For example: مَن تُکرِم أُکرِم (Whoever you respect I will respect.)
• Genitive prepositional phrase or the word after a prefixed noun, for example: بِمَن تَذهَب أذهَب (Whoever you take I will take.)
24. What function do the conditional متی ، أیان ، أینما ، أنَّی ، حیثما have?
The conditional متی ، أیَّان ، أینما ، أنَّی ، حیثما are in the accusative state because it is an adverbial noun of time or place. For example: متی تَنم أنم (Whenever you sleep I will sleep.)
25. What state does the conditional کیفما have?
The conditional کیفما is in the accusative state because it is a hāl accusative. For example:
کیفما نَتوجَّه نُصادف خیراً (However you face it, it will pass positively.)