Bismillah ir rehman ir raheem

Definition of Fasting

Fasting is called SAUM in Arabic.

In dictionary it means: to refrain or abstain from something.

Terminological Meaning

To avoid eating, drinking and few other things.

How long?

From the Morning prayers till the Maghrib prayers.

But why?

To fulfill Almighty Allah’s orders.

Qs # 1 : Why is it called ROZA?

ANS : Because this act of worship is to be performed in daytime and not at night and day is called roz in Persian therefore it is called roza.

Types Of Fasting

Obligatory/Wajib fast (e.g.: fasting in the month of Ramadhan)

Recommended/Mustahib fast (e.g.: fasting in the month of Rajab or Shaban)

Undesirable/Makrooh fast (e.g. : to fast on the day of Aashur)

Prohibited/Haram fast (e.g. :to fast on Ramadhan Eid and Eid-e-Qurban)


If it is known that fasting is harmful then the obligatory fasting will also become prohibited.

Example of harmfulness:

If one knows that he will die if he fasts


The illness will prolong

Qs # 2 : How would one know this?

ANS : Through personal satisfaction


In the light of past experiences


As stated by a credible doctor


By any other valid logical reason

Case : Doctor says that:

Fasting is harmful. I am satisfied that there is no such problem.


Keep fast. There is no problem at all. While I am satisfied that fasting is harmful for me.

QS # 3 : In both cases, whose opinion will be considered effective? Mine or doctor’s?

ANS : Your opinion. You will follow your own satisfaction.

Examples Of Obligatory Fasts

Fasting in the month of Ramadhan

Delayed/Qadha fasts

Penalty Fasting/Kaffara

Mother and Father’s qadha fasts on the eldest son

Fasts becoming obligatory because of oblations/nadhr etc.

Third day fast for the one who is observing I’tekaf.

Fast to be observed in place of Sacrifice of Hajj-e-Tamattau

(For details, check Manasik-e-Hajj)

Intention For Fasting

Q # 1 : Is the intention for fasting compulsory?

ANS : Yes. Fasting is a worshipping act (ibadat) and worship can not be done without intention.

Q # 2 : Is intention anything like saying some words?

ANS : No. It is just to intend in heart.

Q # 3 : What should this intend be?

ANS : I *From Morning till Maghrib prayers

*Am fasting *Qurbat-an-ilAllah

QS # 4 : Qurbat-an-ilAllah means?

ANS : To fulfill the order of Almighty Allah. As a result of which Allah’s nearness is definitely achieved.

QS # 5 : What is meant by the morning prayers? 15 minutes after the commencement of time of Fajar Prayers, Summons to Prayers from my neighborhood mosque is called. Will my fast begin with that summon?

ANS : No. By morning prayers the very first time of Fajr Prayer is meant.

NOTE: To ascertain this, it is necessary that:

Stop eating,drinking etc. a few minutes before this time

Avoid these things few minutes even after Maghrib.

Attention: During the month of Ramadhan, if one changes his Intention or purposely intend to do any such work that breaks the fast, then the fast will be considered void even if he does not commit that act.

QS # 6 : The kept fast is which one? Is it necessary to decide? Means can the fast be kept without deciding and afterwards by choice it is determined as the qadha or the expiated fast?

ANS : No rather it is necessary to decide if the fasting is being observed as qadha or expiated or for any other purpose.

Attention: It is naturally decided in the month of Ramadhan that the kept fast is of the month of Ramadhan because in this month no other fast can be observed.

QS # 7 : I forget that tomorrow is either 15th or 16th of Ramadhan. Does this affect fast too?

ANS : No. This does not affect fast.

QS # 8 : I have not yet decided for tomorrow’s fast. Till what time can I intend?

ANS : It has to be checked that the fast is of what type. Whether it’s obligatory or recommended? If it is obligatory then what type of obligatory fast it is? This is being explained in the following but please note that:

In few cases you will see that even after the morning summons, it is permitted to intend. This is only allowed in such case when from morning summons till that time no such act is committed that breaks a fast.

Example: Intention for recommended fast can be made even a minute before the time of Maghrib but one who had his lunch can not keep this fast.

Important question # 1:

The day of 29th Shaban has ended. It is not known whether the moon has been sighted or not? What shall I do?

ANSWER: * If the moon is sighted then tomorrow will be the first day of Ramadhan. It is obligatory to fast.

* If the moon is not sighted then tomorrow will be the 30th of Shaban. It is not obligatory to fast.

* If there is doubt whether the moon has been sighted or not even then it is not obligatory to fast.

QS # 2 : In state of doubt, fasting was not observed. Later it was known that the moon did appear. Then?

ANS : You did not commit any sin but you have to later observe a qadha for this fast.

QS # 3 : I want to observe fast on this day of doubt. With what intention shall I fast? Can I intend that if it is the month of Ramadhan than the fast shall be considered of it otherwise for the month of Shaban?

ANS : Do not intend like this. Instead if any qadha fast is due on you then make intention for that otherwise observe fast with the intention for a recommended fast.


In this case the benefit will be that later on if it is established that the moon was sighted then that fast would automatically be assumed as the first fast for the month of Ramadhan.

QS # 4 : I kept fast with the intention for Qadha or Recommended Fast but during daytime I came to know that the moon was sighted and today is the first of the month of Ramadhan. What shall I do?

ANS : Just change your intention to the fast for the month of Ramadhan. That is enough.

Fast Abolishers

(Things which make a Fast void)

Eating and Drinking

Letting Thick Dust Reach Throat

Ascribing false things to Almighty Allah, Prophets (A.S.) or to the Infallibles (A.S.)

Immersing complete head in water

To vomit intentionally

Masturbation (Istimna)

Sexual Intercourse (establishing sexual relations)

Remaining in condition of Janabat (ceremonial uncleanliness) till the Call for Fajr prayers

For a women, after the end of menstruation(Haidh or Nifas), non- performance of bath (Ghusl) before the Call for Fajr prayers

Enema with liquids

Fast abolishers - few details


means to take down from throat

Throat: from where the sound of Arabic alphabet خ (KHA) comes out

Attention: Only tasting something by keeping it on tongue does not abolish a fast.

Different cases

1 Something was remained in between teeth, swallowed it intentionally. Fast is void.
2 Forgot and ate or drank something. Fast is valid.
3 Intentionally swallowed saliva. Fast is valid.
4 Saw some delicious food, mouth got watered and drank it intentionally. Fast is valid.
5 Intentionally swallowed phlegm before coming upto mouth

Intentionally swallowed phlegm after coming into mouth

Fast is valid.

Fast is valid.

(Ayatullah Seestani)

Fast is void as per obligatory precaution.

(Ayatullah Khoi, Imam Khomeini, Ayatullah Khamenei)

QS # 1 : I will get weak if I do not eat and drink. Can I avoid fasting?

ANS : No

QS # 2 : Weakness will seriously increase. Un-bearable weakness?

ANS : Then leave the fast and observe Qadha later on.

Use of injection:

As a medicine in illness. Permitted
To anaesthetize any organ of body Permitted
To control lack of nutrition or end the feeling of hunger Not permitted

Usage of drip:

Either for medicine


To control lack of nutrition

Bleeding gums:

QS # 3 : Gums started bleeding but was not attentive and swallowed. Fast is valid or not?

ANS : If attention was not there and swallowed unintentionally then the fast is not affected.

QS # 4 : The blood that came out from gums ended after mixing up with saliva. Can it be swallowed?

ANS : Yes. Swallowing that does not invalidate the fast.

He is eating forgetfully!

QS # 5 : While fasting, a person eats something forgetfully. Is it necessary for me to stop him?

ANS : No

To gargle:

Is permitted but if the water goes down the throat then the fast will become void.

Tooth treatment:

QS # 6 : Can a dentist do filling of teeth and other related works in the month of Ramadhan?

ANS : Yes

QS # 7 : And there is no problem for the patient as well?

ANS : If the patient is satisfied that the blood, water or any other thing will not go down the throat then he can take the treatment during the fast otherwise not.

Use of toothpaste:

No problem. Only the toothpaste cannot be swallowed.

Use of tooth picks or dental floss:

Permitted but with a condition that nothing is swallowed means anything must not go down the throat

Use of eye drops and nasal drops:

The standard is the same here as well. If the medicine is not reaching down the throat then the use is permitted.

Use of perfumes and itr (fragrance):

The use of perfumes and itr does not affect the fast rather it is recommended for the person who is fasting.

Use of shampoo and soap:


Oiling hairs or applying any cream:


Use of lipstick:

This should also not go down the throat otherwise permitted.

Blood donation:

Permitted but If it causes weakness then it is not advisable. Not prohibited in either case.

To gurgle:

While gurgling if water goes down the throat unintentionally, fast is void except that:

Forgot about fasting.

Gurgling for ablution (Wudhu) of obligatory prayers.

Letting thick dust reach throat:

Allowing thick dust to reach throat makes fast void.

Source of dust is not relevant. Originally it may or may not be permissible to eat.

Like flour which is permissible to eat.

Or like sand which is forbidden to consume.

QS # 1 : There is dust but not thick. Allowing this to reach throat will also invalidate the fast?

ANS : No (Imam Khomeini, Ayatullah Seestani, Ayatullah Khamenei)

Void as an obligatory precaution.

(Ayatullah Khoi)

Attention: In the following conditions the fast does not become void:

Dust does not reach the throat (only enters the mouth).

Was not carried intentionally.

Forgot that was fasting

Has doubt whether it reached the throat or not.

QS # 2 : I work in a flour mill and the thick dust of flour reaches the throat. Can I do this work when I am in state of fasting?

ANS : Use mask or other similar thing while you work so that the clouds of dust do not reach the throat otherwise the fast will become void.

Use of cigarette etc.:

Cigarette, cigar, huqqa,shisha and pipe are generally used in such a manner; that invalidates the fast.

Use of inhaler:

QS # 3 : I am an asthma patient. Use of inhaler is compulsion. Does it invalidate fast?

ANS : * No. In this case, the fast will remain valid.

(Ayatullah Khoi, Imam Khomeini, Ayatullah Seestani)

* If the fast can be kept after the month of Ramadhan without inhaler or spray, then as an obligatory precaution Qadha shall be kept.

(Ayatullah Khamenei)

Use of balm on head or chest:

No problem. Fast will remain valid.

Taking steam:

QS # 4 : Taking steam for medication invalidates the fast?

ANS : * Concentrated vapors should not go down the throat.

* If these vapors take the form of water after accumulating in the mouth then they are also not permitted to be swallowed.

Vapours caused because of warm water in the bathroom:

If such vapors go inside the body with the breathe, there is no problem.

Smoke of buses and cars:

If one is satisfied that this smoke would not go down the throat and goes by chance then does not matter. Fast is in order.

Ascribing false things to almighty allah, prophets (a.s.) or to the infallibles (a.s.)

Either in the state of fast or not:

To tell a lie is forbidden.

To relate falsehood with anyone is also forbidden.

To relate any falsehood with Infallibles (AS) is even a bigger sin.

QS # 1 : Among the above which makes a fast void?

ANS : Almighty Allah

Prophets (AS)

14 Infallibles (AS)

Ways of relating falsehood:

Saying, writing, by making an expression, as an answer to any question, to send/forward an Email or SMS, to endorse someone’s falsehood etc.


Relating falsehood intentionally invalidates a fast.

Quoting something by assuming as truth, later known that it was false: fast is valid.

Do not know whether it is true or false: Such thing must be quoted with the reference.

Incorrect recitation of holy quran

QS # 2 : I recite Holy Quran in state of fasting. But my recitation is weak. I have no intention to relate falsehood with Allah. My intention is to seek reward. Will this affect my fast?

ANS : No but try to improve your qiraat/ recitation.

Immersing complete head in water:

Intentionally immersing entire head in water invalidates a fast.

Attention: In the following cases, fast does not become void:

Was done forgetfully.

Entire head was not immersed but a part of it.

Half of the head once and other half was immersed later.

Fell in water involuntarily and entire head went into the water.

Someone else forcefully immersed in water.

Has doubt if whole head was immersed or not.

Likewise washing head under tap or shower does not invalidate the fast.
NOTE: According to Ayatullah Seestani, immersing complete head in water in the state of fasting is highly undesirable. Means reward is lessened but neither is it prohibited nor it invalidates the fast.


Vomiting intentionally invalidates a fast. Though one may have been obliged to do so on account of sickness. However, the fast does not become void, if one vomits involuntarily.

If one forgets that he is fasting and vomits even then the fast does not become void.

QS # 1 : Is belching intentionally while fasting permitted?

ANS : Yes. But if something comes into the mouth, then it is not permitted to swallow it intentionally.


QS # 1 : What does it mean?

ANS : Besides intercourse doing such an act with oneself that results in discharge of one’s own semen.

NOTE : It does not make any difference if the help was taken from something or someone or not.


This act is prohibited even if one is not fasting. However, the case of husband and wife is exceptional.

Because of this act, bath for Janabat (ceremonial uncleanliness) is also to be performed.

While fasting, if this act is done, the fast will become void even if it was the results of husband-wife inter relationship.

QS # 2 : Does the fast become void by just looking at a Non-Mehram?

ANS : Prohibited sight is after all prohibited. But just because of sighting, the fast does not become void.

QS # 3 : Viewing lust provoking movies voids a fast?

ANS : Such movies are prohibited to watch in all cases either it is the month of Ramadhan or any other month.

If viewed with an intention of masturbation and semen is discharged then the fast would become void.

Case : During fasting, if semen is discharged involuntarily for example while sleeping.

QS # 4 : Will the fast become void then?

ANS : No.

QS # 5 : In such case, is it mandatory for the fasting person to perform bath (Ghusl) immediately?

ANS : No.

Bath will be necessary before performing prayers.

Although performing bath early is definitely better.

QS # 6 : A fasting person knows that if he sleeps, semen would discharge, is it permissible for him to sleep?

ANS : Yes. Even then he may sleep.

Sexual intercourse (establishing sexual relations):

This also Invalidates the fast, regardless of whether the semen is discharged or not.

There is no harm for a married couple to indulge in courtship with each other without involving in sexual intercourse.

Liquids discharged other than semen does not invalidate the fast.

QS # 1 : Husband is not fasting while wife is observing obligatory fast. Can husband force the wife to have intercourse?

ANS : No

QS # 2 : A newly wedded couple went for honeymoon to some other city in the month of Ramadhan. Can they establish matrimonial relations during daytime?

ANS : If the stay is for less than 10 days then the decrees for a traveler would be applicable. Means they cannot fast. In this case matrimonial relations can be established during daytime but it is not advisable (Makrooh).

If the stay is for 10 days or more then it is obligatory to fast. Establishing matrimonial relations will be prohibited.

Remaining in the state of janabat (ceremonial uncleanliness) till the call for fajr prayers

After being Junub (ceremonially unclean), if a person does not take Ghusl (bath) till the time for Fajr prayers or if his responsibility is to do tayammum and he does not perform that, then in few conditions his fast will become void.


If he does not take ghusl/tayammum intentionally, then if:

QS # 1 : If a person forgets to perform Ghusl-e-Janabat (bath for ceremonial uncleanliness) in the month of Ramadhan and remembers it after few days, then?

ANS : For all those fasts

And will perform qadha

For all prayers as well

Case : It is the month of Ramadhan. Zaid went into the state of Janabat. Knows that if he goes to sleep he will not wake up before Fajr,

QS # 2 : Can he sleep?

ANS : No. It is obligatory for him to perform ghusl first.

If he sleeps without performing ghusl and wakes up after Fajr summons, his fast will be void.

QS # 3 : It is the night of the month of Ramadhan. Zaid is not in the state of Janabat. He went to sleep and wakes up after the Fajr summons and finds that he has become Junub in sleep. Does not know whether the semen discharged before or after the Fajr summons. What is his responsibility?

ANS : In any case, his fast remains valid.

QS # 4 : Ghusl was delayed intentionally till the time for fajr summons remained so less that now ghusl cannot be performed. What should he do?

ANS : He committed a sin. But it is obligatory for him to fast after performing tayammum.

QS # 5 : Can he offer his Fajr prayers with the same tayammum?

ANS : No. When the water is available and time is also sufficient then it is necessary to perform Ghusl.

Bath for touching dead body and fast:

This Ghusl becomes obligatory because of bringing part of one’s body in contact with a dead body with some conditions.

One can fast without performing this obligatory ghusl.

Prayers cannot be offered until this ghusl is performed.

For a woman, after the end of menstruation (haidh or nifas), non-performance of bath (ghusl) before the call for fajr prayers:

If a woman gets pure from Haidh or Nifas before the call for Fajr prayers in the month of Ramadhan then it is necessary for her to:

* Perform ghusl before the Fajr summons.

* If time is short; ghusl is not possible then perform tayammum.

Keep fast on that day

QS # 1 : Can Fajr prayers be also performed with that tayammum?

ANS : No. if water is available then ghusl has to be performed.

QS # 2 : If one does not perform tayammum too, will the fast become void?


Recommended fast remains valid even without tayammum.

QS # 3 : If a woman gets pure during the daytime then?

ANS : She can not fast on that day, keep qadha later.

QS # 4 : If the condition of haidh or nifas begins during fasting then?

ANS : Fast is void even if Maghrib is very near. Keep qadha for that fast. Please note that in this case the woman has not committed any sin.

QS # 5 : A woman gets pure before morning summons but the time is too short for performing either ghusl or tayammum?

ANS : Then the fast is valid even without performing ghusl and tayammum.

QS # 6 : If a woman comes to know after the Fajr summons that she has already got pure before the call for prayer then?

ANS : If any of the fast abolisher has not been performed yet then the fast is valid otherwise it is void. Keep qadha later on.

QS # 7 : Can women use tablets etc. to change their periodical cycle?

ANS : Permitted if they are not harmful for them.

Istihaza and fast:

In this case if a woman performs all of the obligatory baths then her fast is absolutely valid.

Note : Details for this are available in Tozeeh-ul-Masail.


Enema: means to insert medicine from the place of rectum in order to remove constipation. This medicine can be solid as well as liquid.

Taking enema with a liquid invalidates a fast, even if he is obliged to take it for the sake of treatment.

Attention: Taking enema with solids does not invalidate a fast.