Place of birth: Tabriz – Iran 1320/1902
Place of Demise: Tehran – Iran 1390/1970
Shaykh ʿAbd al-Husayn Amini (Arabic: عبدالحسین امینی), known as 'Allama Amini the author of the well-known book al-Ghadir, was a Shi'a jurist, muhaddith, theologian, historian, codicologist and one of the great Shi'a scholars in the fourteenth/twentieth century. Besides writing numerous important scholarly works, he also established in the city of Najaf the Amir al-Mu'minin Library, which includes 70,000 manuscripts.
Sheikh Abd al-Husayn Amini was born in Tabriz, Iran on 1320 (AH). His father, “Haj Mirza Ahmad Amini” was one of the greatest scholars in Tabriz City and all people knew him for his knowledge and good morality. His grandfather “Amin-ul-Share'”, loved the prophet’s (SW) descendants and this love encouraged him to poetize about them. Abd al-Husayn was trained in a religious family. He studied premises in Tabriz City. His teachers were Sayyed Mohammad Mulana (writer of Mesbah-ul- Masakin Book), Sayyed Morteza Khosroshahi and Sheikh Husayn (writer of Hedyat-ul-Anam Book).
During this time, he recited by heart “Al-Fiah-Ibn-e Malik” (it was 1000verses about Arabic literature in Arabic language). But he preferred to recite by heart the poems about Imam Ali (AS). For this reason he left Tabriz City to Najaf. In Najaf Seminary, he continued his studies and his teachers were Sayyed Abutorab Khansari and Sayyed Mohammad Firooz Abadi.
In 1335 (AH), he began the writing of Shohada-ul-Fazileh Book. In the age of 33, he could make an innovation by searching in the old books and wrote about the old scholars’ biographies who were martyred for the God’s sake. By the aim of introducing of the meaning of pious pilgrimage in Shi’it culture, he wrote an explanation on Kamel-ul-Ziarat (Ibn-e Qolooliyeh Qomi’s book) and Adab-ul-Zaeer.
He also wrote Samarat-ul-Asfar Book in two volumes. This book is in the field of philosophy. He also wrote an explanation on Makaseb (earning and professions) and Vasayel (mediators) books of Sheikh Ansari. During this time, for his scientific attempts, he got the exertion degree from Ayatollah Sayyed Abulhasan Isfahani, Haj. Mirza Ahmad Husayn Naeeni, Sheikh Abdulkarim Hae’ri Yazdi and Sheikh Mohammad Husein Kompany.
Return to Tabriz
Then he returned to Tabriz City. In this era; he was attracted by Holy Quran’s interpretation and analyzed some of the Quranic suras, such as; The Heights (E’raf), The Event (Vaqe’eh) and The Believer (Mo’men). All of these works were an introduction for his great work.
Starting Al-Ghadir Books
Allamah Amini always thought about the creating of a society on the basis of great Islamic ideas. For this reason he began the writing of Al-Ghadir Book by the aim of making clear of immortal Imam Ali (AS)’s sanctity. In writing of this book, he tried to analyze the Qadir event and Imam Ali (AS)’s sanctity by referring to different historical events such as; Quranic verses, narrations and Islamic scholars’ statements.
For the compiling of this book Allamah Amini bore the hardships of traveling to several countries, including India, Turkey, Syria, Egypt and Iraq to study different sources. He gathered from Sunni sources the narrations of 110 Sahaba or the Prophet’s companions about the event of Ghadeer, and then states the Hadith narrated in this regard by 360 reliable transmitters. He also wrote several other books including an exegesis of the Holy Qur’an. He founded a large library in holy Najaf, which is still used by scholars.
First; he researched on the propagation verses including; The Food (Al-Ma’edeh-67, 5), The ways of Ascent (Al-Mo’arej 1-3) and The Man (Insan). Then he analyzed the narrations of Ghadir, Welayah, Manzelat, Saqelaiyn, Anzar and Al-Ashireh from historical and documentary points of views. In fallowing of Ghadir narration, he found 24 historical books, 27 narrators, 14 holy Quran interpreters and 7 Islamic lecturers who analyzed Ghadir narration. Allamah, in the end of his research, wrote different poets’ poems about this subject. By this research, he was going to defend Imam Ali (AS)’s sanctity (Willayat) from historical point of view.
The first print of Al-Ghadir book published in Najaf City and developed by 9 volumes. After publishing of this great book, most of scholars of different Islamic countries wrote an explanation on it.
Commander of Faithful Library
The next 7 years, Allamah Amini established a library with more than 42 thousands books on Imam Ali (AS). This library was called as Commandeer of the Faithful School.
On July 2, 1970, the renowned Islamic scholar and theologian, and compiler of the valuable book “al-Ghadeer”, Allamah Abdul-Hussain Amini, passed away in Tehran, Iran at the age of 68 years. His body was returned to Najaf for burial next to Amir-al-moʾmenin library, the library that he had founded. May God bless his soul.