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Taharah is a real condition شرط واقعي in Prayers and fasting. Any worship which requires Purity (Taharah) is invalid if it was done with out purity.

If you could not learn basic rules of Ghusl and never been informed that Ghusl is obligatory in certain cases, which is very rare now a days, then the rule is different. But if you knew about Ghusl and it becomes obligatory in certain situations, and you did not know that it applies on you, and you fasted with out Ghusl, then you need to perform the obligatory Ghusl then perform every worship which was performed with out Ghusl.

You can read the verdict of Ayatullah Sustani as follows:

Ruling 1593. If a junub in the month of Ramadan forgets to perform ghusl and remembers after one day, he must keep a qaḍāʾ fast for that day; and if he remembers after a few days, he must keep a qaḍāʾ fast for all the days that he is certain to have been junub on. For example, if he does not know whether he was junub for three or four days, he must keep qaḍāʾ fasts for three days.


Bismihi ta'ala

If you did not know, and you did not have the ability to educate yourself about these things, then your fasting is valid. Otherwise, you will need to do qadha. 

ِAnd Allah knows best

If you deliberately broke any the fast of any day of the month of Ramadan, you need to pay Kaffara beside Qaza and Istighfaar. Kaffara for every day of broken or deliberately missed fast is feeding sixty poor believers. Feeding means giving them one meal of food or at least 750 grams of wheat or rice or any food item.

If broke the fast  with out knowing that it is obligatory on you to fast, then just Qaza of the fast is enough.


Bismihi ta'ala

You do not need to pay a kaffarah. 

All you must do is redo that day as qadha`. 

And Allah knows best.