12. The Ethos Of Prophet Job (Ayyub)

Prophet Job was born 3642 years after the fall of Adam. His mother, Zarj is from the descendants of Lot. He used to live in Jabieh between Ramallah and Damascus. He married Rahmah, daughter of Ifrathim son of Joseph. Rahmah bore seven sons and three daughters for Job. Prophet Job was famous during his time for having cattle, sheep, camel and land but he lost all his children and wealth as a test by God. Furthermore, he was afflicted with skin disease in a way that people expelled him from the city to be immune from disease. For seven years, no one but Rahmah favored Job and took care of him in the utmost degree of hardship and indigence. When seven years, seven months, seven day and seven hours passed since his affliction, revelation to him halted too. Hence Job was no more patient and started bemoaning:

“And Ayyub, when he cried to his Lord, (saying): Harm has afflicted me, and Thou art the Most merciful." (21:83)

وَأَيُّوبَ إِذْ نَادَىٰ رَبَّهُ أَنِّي مَسَّنِيَ الضُّرُّ وَأَنْتَ أَرْحَمُ الرَّاحِمِينَ

At this time Gabriel came and said:

"Urge with your foot; here is a cool washing-place and a drink." (38:42)

ارْكُضْ بِرِجْلِكَ ۖ هَٰذَا مُغْتَسَلٌ بَارِدٌ وَشَرَابٌ

Ayyub urged his foot. Immediately two springs gushed forth: One of warm water and the other cool. He first bathed in the warm water and his ailment recovered then drank a drop of the cool water and his inner ailment recovered. He was talking with Gabriel when Rahmah arrived and saw two men instead of Job. While weeping, she asked them about her ill husband. Job told her of God’s grace and they lived a good life since then.

"And We gave him his family and the like of them with them." (38:43)

وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ أَهْلَهُ وَمِثْلَهُمْ مَعَهُمْ

Rahmah bore seven sons and three daughters again and God returned to them their wealth. In the first year of affliction, Job was 73 years old and his affliction lasted for seven years. He lived another 146 years and passed away at the age of 226. His body was buried in the city of Hooran.

His Moral Virtues In The Holy Quran

"We found him patient; most excellent the servant! Surely he was frequent in returning (to Allah)." (38:44)

إِنَّا وَجَدْنَاهُ صَابِرًا ۚ نِعْمَ الْعَبْدُ ۖ إِنَّهُ أَوَّابٌ

His Patience

It has been reported on the authority of Ibn -Abbas that one day Job’s wife said to him: You should ask God to heal you. Job said: Woe to you. We enjoyed wealth for seventy years, Let us be patient in hardships too. Soon after this, God healed him.

عَنْ ابْنَ عَبّاسٍ إِنَّ امْرَأَةَ أَيُّوبَ قَالَتْ لَهُ يَومًا: لَوْ دَعَوْتَ اللَّهَ أَنْ يَشْفِيكَ فَقَالَ: وَيْحَكَ كُنّا في النَّعْماءِ سَبْعِينَ عَامًا فَهَلُمَّ نَصْبِرُ في الضَّرّاءِ مِثْلُها قَالَ: فَلَمْ يَمْكُثْ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ إِلا يَسِيرًا حَتّى عُوفِيَ.

The Hardest Affliction

Addressing God, Job says: O God! By Your might, You know that I will endure on my body the hardest when it comes to obedience and worship.

فَوَعِزَّتِكَ إِنَّكَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ مَا عُرِضَ لِي أَمْرانَ قَطُّ كِلاهُمَا لَكَ طَاعَةً إِلا عَمِلْتُ بِأَشَدِّهِمَا عَلى بَدَني

His Support For Orphans And The Weak

Job said: By God! He knows that I have never eaten unless there has been an orphan or a weak person eating with me.

قَالَ أَيُّوبُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: وَعِزَّةِ رِبّي إِنّهُ لَيَعْلَمُ إِنّي مَا أَكَلْتُ طَعَامًا قَطّ إِلا وَمَعِيَ يَتِيمٌ أَوْ ضَعيفٌ يَأْكُلُ مَعِي.

The Hardest Thing To Job

When Job was healed and rescued from afflictions, he was asked: Out of what happened to you, what was the hardest? Job said: The enemies’ blame.

قِيلَ لأَيُّوبَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بَعْدَ مَا عَافَاهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالى: أَيُّ شيء أَشَدّ مَا مَرَّ عَلَيْكَ؟ قَالَ: شَمَاتَةُ الأَعْداءِ.

He And God’s Favor

It has been reported on the authority of Imam Sadeq that God sent golden locusts on Job from the sky and Job carried them home from outdoors. Gabriel asked: Aren’t you fed up O Ayyub? Job said: Who is fed up with God’s favor?

عَنْ أَبي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: أَمْطَرَ اللَّهُ عَلى أَيُّوبَ مِنَ السَّماءِ فَراشًا مِنْ ذَهَبٍ، فَجَعَلَ أَيُّوبُ يَأْخُذُ مَا كَانَ خَارِجًا مِنّ دَارِهِ فَيُدْخِلَهُ دَارَهُ، فَقَالَ جِبْرَئيلُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: أَمَا تَشْبَعُ يَا أَيُّوبُ؟ قَالَ: وَمَنْ يَشْبَعُ مِنْ فَضْلِ رَبِّهِ.

Eight Virtues Of His Moral Features

Job was benefactor, pious, compassionate towards the poor, supportive of the widows and orphans, hospitable, helper of wayfarers, grateful to God’s blessings and paid what was due to God.

وَكَانَ [أَيُّوبُ] بَرًّا، تَقِيًّا، رَحِيمًا بِالْمَسَاكِين، يُكَفّلُ الأَرَامِلَ وَالأَيْتَامَ، وَيُكْرِمُ الضَّيْفَ، وَيُبَلِّغُ ابنَ السَّبِيلِ، وَكَانَ شَاكِرًا لأَنْعُمِ اللَّهِ تَعَالى، مُؤدّيًا لِحَقِّ اللَّهِ تَعَالى.

Moral Invocation By Job

One of invocations recited by Job was the following:

I seek refuge with Allah from a neighbor who hides the good and discloses the bad.

وَكَانَ مِنْ دُعَاءِ أَيّوبَ: أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنْ جَارٍ عَيْنُهُ تَراني إِنْ رَأَى حَسَنةً سَتَرَهَا وَإِنْ رَأَى سَيِّئَةً ذَكَرَها.

His Satisfaction With Tribulation

Prophet Job had been left on the pile of garbage of Israelites for seven and odd years. During this time, he did not ask God to remove tribulation from him.

لَقَدْ مَكَثَ أَيّوبُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ مَطْرُوحًا عَلى كَناسَةٍ لَبَنى إِسْرائيلَ سَبْعَ سَنِينٍ وَأَشْهُرًا مَا يَسْأَلُ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَنْ يَنْكَشِفَ مَا بِهِ.