Jonah was born 4708 years after the fall of Adam. He was a Prophet of Bani-Israel. According to the holy Quran
وإِنَّ يُونُسَ لَمِنَ المُرسَلينَ.
He was the son of EliJah(Ilyas) or Matthew. Hence he is called Jonah son of Matthew. His book consists of advice. There is an interesting story about him the concise version of which goes as follows:
When he fled his people for the city of Tressiss in Tunisia, he went to the seashore. The holy Quran says:
إِذ أَبَقَ إِلى الفُلكِ المَشحُونِ.
When they launched the ship, the sea became stormy without any wind to blow. There was a big wave in a way that those in the ship became worried. Jonah said: Throw me into sea so that you will have calm. People said: We do not dare to commit such an act. Jonah said: The storm will not stop unless I am drowned. If you do not believe me, cast lot so as to decide who should be thrown into sea. The holy Quran says:
فَساهَمَ فَكانَ مِنَ المُدحَضينَ.
This was repeated three times and eventually they threw him into sea. The holy Quran says:
فَالتَقَمَهُ الحُوتُ وَهوَ مُليمٌ.
When he was in the belly of fish, he started glorifying God:
وَذَا النُّونِ إِذ ذَهَبَ مُغاضِبًا فَظَنَّ أن لَن نَقدِرَ عَلَيهِ فَنادى في الظُّلُماتِ أن لا إِله إِلا أنتَ سُبحانَكَ إِنّي كُنتُ مِنَ الظّالِمينَ. فَاستَجَبنا لَهُ وَنَجَّيناهُ مِنَ الغَمِّ وَكذلِكَ نُنجي المُؤمِنينَ.
The holy Quran further says:
فَنَبَذناهُ بِالعَراءِ وَهوَ سَقيمٌ.
After a few days, Jonah was given the mission to go to the city of Nineva. He did so. In this relation, the holy Quran says:
فَآمَنوا فَمَتّعناهُم إِلى حِينٍ.
After people believed in his mission, he went to Egypt where he spent the rest of his life with the recluse.
وَذا النُّونِ إِذ ذَهَبَ مُغاضِبًا فَظَنَّ أن لَن نَقدِرَ عَليهِ فَنادى في الظُّلُماتِ أن لا إِله إِلا أنتَ سُبحانَكَ إِنّي كُنتُ مِنَ الظّالِمينَ، فَاستَجَبنا لَهُ وَنَجَّيناهُ مِنَ الغَمِّ وَكَذلِكَ نُنجي المُؤمنينَ.
When Jonah turned away from his people, He went away and mounted the ship, a strong storm started blowing in a way that she stopped moving. Those in the ship said: This stoppage is due to the fault of one of you. Jonah said: Yes, it is because of my fault, so throw me into sea.
فَسارَ حَتّى رَكِبَ في سَفينَةٍ فَأصابَ أهلَها عاصِفٌ مِنَ الرّيحِ، وَقيلَ بَل وَقَفت فَلَم تَسْرِ، فَقالَ مَن فيها: هذِه بِخَطيئةِ أحَدِكُم، فَقالَ يُونُسُ هذِهِ بِخَطيئَتي فَألقُوني في البَحرِ.
Prophet Jonah was tested by being thrown into sea and swallowed by a fish but his faith was firm. His covenant of Allah was never loose but he kept on serving his Master.
فَامتَحَن بِالإِلقاءِ في اليَمِّ وَالتِقامِ الحُوتِ لَهُ، فَلَم يَتَزَعزَع إِيمانُهُ وَلا اختَلَّ حَبلُ وِصالِهِ بِرَبِّه وَلا انْفصَلَ عَن خِدمةِ سَيّدِه.
Prophet Jonah Praised and sanctified God in the stomach of fish. He was also fearful of the magnanimity, dignity and punishment of God. He found himself dissolved in God; he saw no one but God; he relied on no one but God; he knew no beloved but God; he feared God more than that man could imagine. Therefore the greetings of Allah and His mercy and blessing be upon him, upon our Prophet and his pure Household.
فَهوَ في بَطنِ الحُوتِ يُسَبّحُ اللَّه وَيُقدِّسُهُ خائِفًا سَطوَتهُ وَنَكالِه مُتفانٍ في ذاتِ اللَّه العَزيزِ الجَبّارِ، لا يَرى غَيرَ اللَّه وَلا يَرجُو غَيرَهُ وَلا حَبيب لَهُ غَيرُهُ فَكانَ خَوفُهُ مِن رَبّه، بالغَ الحَدَّ لا يَخطُر بِبالِ أحدٍ مِنَ النّاسِ، فَعَلَيهِ وَعَلى نَبيّنا وَآلِهِ الأطهارِ صَلواتُ اللَّه وَرَحمَتُهُ وَبَرَكاتُهُ.